Sunday, September 12, 2010

know the causes and treatment of schizophrenia

                                                            figure via myhealthguardian

The cause of schizophrenia is unknown, and schizophrenia can not be cured but can be treated. Predictors of good treatment results are normal adjustment before the onset of the disease and no family, schizophrenia, confusion, paranoia, depression or catatonic behavior. Some prognostic factors of poor prognosis are: age of onset, family history of disease, withdrawal, apathy, and a history of thought disorder. There are several theories to explain the development of this disorder. Genetic factors may play a role as close relatives of a person suffering from schizophrenia are more likely to develop the disease. The psychological and social factors, such as disorders of interpersonal relationships and family may also play a role in development.

Hospitalization, psychotherapy and drug treatment:
Psychotherapy can be useful in certain situations. Family therapy is often useful to help families cope with the injured party. Behavioral techniques used in therapy, or at home can help a person learn behaviors that lead to social acceptance.

Hospitalization is often in order to prevent self-injury or injury to others, and to ensure basic human needs like food, rest and hygiene.

The first episode of psychosis. Typical antipsychotic selected on the basis of adverse patient tolerates the best (see examples below). Need 6 to 8 weeks at a therapeutic dose of due process. If no response, consider switching to another class of typical antipsychotics. If both tests are not typical antipsychotics, such as antipsychotics (usually risperidone, olanzapine, and then, and clozapine). Prophylactic treatment is recommended at least 6 months to 1 year. Above is usually done in consultation with a psychiatrist.

Back psychosis. It requires a long-term treatment of antipsychotics. Reducing the dose to prevent long-term antipsychotics (tardive dyskinesia).

supportive counseling, individual psychotherapy or family can be a useful adjunct to reduce the risk of relapse.

Community programs beneficial to provide support, social skills training and vocational rehabilitation.

via psychnet

Know the anatomy and brain function

 picture of Brain Anatomy

The brain is the control center of body functions and allows us to cope with our environment. Words, actions, thoughts and feelings are in the middle of the brain. It is so complex that some theorists believe that there will never be able to fully understand. But we know that each part of the brain specific and important role, function often profoundly important, and each part contributes to the smooth functioning of our body healthy.

brainstem is located in the lower part of the brain and connects the brain to the spinal cord. Brain stem controls many vital functions, including roads motor and sensory function of the heart and respiratory system and reflexes.

Broca's area is located in the opercular and triangular bottom before. Function of this area is to understand the language, speech and neural control for the face.

The cerebellum is located in the lower back and the head is connected to the brain stem. This is the second largest structure in the brain and is composed of two hemispheres. Cerebellum controls complex motor functions like walking, balance, posture, coordination and general.

CSF, also known as PPC is a clear substance that circulates in the brain and spinal cord. It provides nutrients and serves to cushion the brain and, therefore, protect against damage. As the liquid is absorbed, most is produced from the choroid plexus, a structure located in the rooms. brain tumor can cause a buildup of cerebrospinal fluid or blocked.

The brain is the largest part of the brain and is associated with conscious thought, movement and sensation. It consists of two halves, each of which controls the opposite side of the body. Halves are connected by the corpus callosum, which delivers messages between them. Four sheets form in the brain, the frontal, temporal and parietal occipital.

Front is one of the four parts of the hemisphere of the brain. It controls attention, behavior, abstract thinking, problem solving, creative thinking, emotions, intellect, initiative, above, the coordination of movements, muscle movements, smell, physical reactions and personality.

Hypothalamus is the region of the brain in association with the pituitary gland, which controls the hormonal processes of the organization, as well as temperature, mood, hunger and thirst.

Meningitis are the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Flowing from this tissue tumor called meningioma.

motor cortex is an area in the middle of the upper part of the brain that helps control movement in various parts of the body.

occipital lobe of the cerebral hemisphere is at the back of the head and vision.

optic chiasm is located in the hypothalamus and the optic nerve which passes on the opposite side of the brain.

parietal lobe is one of the four lobes of the cerebral hemisphere. Orders tactile sensations in response to internal stimuli, sensory comprehension of language, reading, and certain visual functions.

The pineal gland controls the response to light and darkness. The exact role of the pineal gland is not certain.

The pituitary is a small body size of beans, which is located at the base of the brain and is connected to the hypothalamus by a stalk. Pituitary secretes several important hormones, growth and sexual maturation.

sensory cortex is located in front of the parietal lobe, or in other words, the central area of the brain. sensory cortex receives information from the spinal cord to touch, pressure, pain, perception of body position and movements.

Time is one of the four lobes of the cerebral hemisphere cerebral hemisphere. Controls the sound and visual memory, language, some hearing and speech, language, and some behaviors.

Hills is located near the center of the brain and control the entry and exit to and from the brain and the sensation of pain and attention.

The four chambers of the brain are linked to defects in the brain where cerebrospinal fluid is produced.

Wernicke's area is part of the temporal lobe surrounding the auditory cortex and is considered essential to understanding and making speeches. Damage to Wernicke's area causes deficits in understanding spoken language.

via massoudbina

Wednesday, September 8, 2010

How the CT Scan Tool

                                                          CT Scan. figure via atlantaworkerscompblog

What is a CT of the body?
CT-CAT scans are sometimes called noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat disease.
CT combines special x-ray machines with advanced computers to produce multiple images or pictures of the inside of the body. These cross-sectional images of the surface of the test can be tested on a computer screen, printed or transferred to CD.
Traditional knowledge of the internal organs, bones, soft tissues and blood vessels provide greater clarity and reveal more detail than ordinary X-ray examinations.
Using specialized equipment and knowledge to create and interpret CT of the body, radiologists can more easily diagnose problems such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, infectious diseases, appendicitis, trauma and disorders of the musculoskeletal system .

What are the most common applications of the procedure?
Traditional knowledge:
  • One of the best and fastest tools of control of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, as it contains a detailed breakdown of all types of fabrics.
  • Often the preferred method for diagnosing many different cancers, including lung, liver and pancreas, because the image allows the physician to confirm the presence of the tumor and measure its size, exact location and size of tumor involvement of other nearby tissues.
  • Research, which plays an important role in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases that can lead to stroke, kidney failure and even death. CT is widely used to evaluate cases of pulmonary embolism (blood clot in the lung vessels), and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA).
  • Useful in diagnosing and treating spinal problems and the hands, feet and other skeletal structures because it can clearly show even very small bones and surrounding tissues such as muscles and blood vessels blood.

In children, CT is rarely used in the diagnosis of lung cancer or pancreatic tumors and aneurysms of the aorta. For children, CT is increasingly used to assess:
  • Lymphoma
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Vascular malformations
  • Kidney

Doctors use CT:
  • Quickly identify injuries to the lungs, heart and blood vessels, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines or other internal organs in case of injury.
  • Guide biopsies and other procedures such as drainage of abscesses and minimally invasive treatment of tumors.
  • Planning and evaluation of results of operations, such as organ transplants or gastric bypass.
  • Planning and radiotherapy properly manage and monitor tumor response to chemotherapy.
  • Measure the bone mineral density to detect osteoporosis.

How do I prepare?

Wear comfortable clothes for the examination. You can have a dress to wear during the procedure.

Metal objects, including jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins may affect the CT images and should not be at home or removed before the examination. You may also be asked to remove hearing aids and removable dental work.

You may be asked not to eat or drink for several hours in advance, especially if a contrast material will be used for the examination. Tell your doctor before taking any medication, or if you have allergies. If you have a known allergy to contrast material or "dye", the doctor may prescribe medication to reduce the risk of allergic reactions.

You should also inform your doctor of any recent illness or other medical conditions, and if you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney or thyroid problems. Each of these conditions can increase the risk of unusual adverse reactions.

Women should always inform your doctor and the CT technician if there is a possibility they are pregnant.

What is the material like?

scanner is usually a large box with a hole like a machine or a small tunnel in the center. You will lie on an examining table that slides into the narrow tunnel. Turning around you, x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite each other in the ring, called the gantry. Computer workstation that processes the information image is in a separate room where the technician operating the scanner and monitoring of research.

Techniques of Physical Examination

                                                           figure via depts.washington

The study is to evaluate the power to determine his state of health. Control techniques include palpation (feeling with hands and / or fingers), percussion (tapping fingers), auscultation (listening), and smell. A complete medical examination also includes gathering information about people, history and lifestyle, laboratory research and disease control. These elements constitute the data upon which to establish a diagnosis and a treatment plan is developed.

Deadline for the annual survey has been replaced in most health care environments of periodic health examinations. The frequency with which it is based on factors such as age, sex, presence of risk factors for disease in the person of the test. Health professionals often use the guidelines that were developed by organizations such as the U.S. Preventive Task Force. Organizations like the American Cancer Society and American Heart Association, which supports detection and prevention of specific diseases, generally recommend testing more intensive and frequent, or to suggest that research into various organs.
Testing complete physical opportunities for health care professionals to obtain basic information on who can be useful in the future. They also allow health care providers to establish relationships before problems. Physical examination is the right time to answer questions and teach good health practices. Identifying and solving problems at an early stage can have beneficial effects of long-term results.
Everyone should have periodic physical examination. This occurs frequently (monthly at first) in infants and gradually reach a frequency of once a year for youth and adults.

The complete study usually begins in the head and proceeds until the fingers. However, the exact mileage will vary depending on individual needs and preferences of the examiner has examined. The test takes on average about 30 minutes. The cost of testing depends on the charge for professional time and all the tests that are included in the price. Most health insurance plans for routine physical tests, including research.

Before you ask the experts observe the person, the general appearance, general health and behavior. Measurements of height and weight are made. life, such as pulse, breathing rate, body temperature and blood pressure are recorded.
The suspect in a sitting position, after verification systems:
  • Skin. The exposed areas of skin are observed; size and shape of any change is noted.
  • Head. Hair, scalp, skull and face are examined.
  • Eyes. The external structures are observed. internal structures can be observed using an ophthalmoscope (instrument lights) in a dark room.
  • Ears. external control structures. otoscope instrument called light can be used for the internal control structure.
  • Nose and sinuses. external nose is examined. nasal mucosa and internal structures can be observed using a nasal speculum and penlight.
  • Mouth and throat. teeth lips, gums, palate, tongue and throat, are inspected.
  • Neck. The lymph nodes on both sides of the neck and the thyroid gland is palpable.
  • Return. The spine and back muscles are palpable, and checked for tenderness. Upper back, where are the lungs, is palpable on the left and right and the stethoscope is used to listen to breath sounds.
  • Breasts and armpits. women's breasts are inspected with the arms relaxed and grew. The men and women, the lymph nodes in the armpits are felt in the hands of an expert. If the person is still sitting, movement in the joints of the hands, arms, shoulders, neck, jaw, and you can check.

Even if the person is lying on the table test, the test includes:
  • Breathe. The breasts are palpated and control the masses.
  • Front chest and lungs. surface inspection with the fingers, using palpation and percussion. Stethoscope is used to listen to breath sounds internal.

The head should be slightly raised to examine:
  • Heart. Stethoscope is used to listen to heart rate and rhythm. The blood vessels of the neck are observed and palpable.

The suspect should be flat on the survey:
  • The abdomen. Light and deep palpation is used on the abdomen to feel the contours of the internal organs, including liver, spleen, kidneys and aorta, large vessels.
  • The rectum and anus. The person lying on the left side, outside areas are observed. The internal digital examination (using a gloved finger), is generally for people over 40 years. Among men, the prostate is palpable.
  • Genital warts. external genitalia are controlled and the region examined hernia. Among men, the scrotum and testes are palpable. In women, an investigation is in the basin through a viewing window and the sample Papanicolaou (Pap) test can be taken.
  • Feet. Laying flat, the legs are inspected for swelling, and pulses in the knees, thighs, feet and surrounded. Aine is the presence of palpable lymph nodes. Joints and muscles are observed.
  • Musculo-skeletal disorders. The position of the person, the straightness of the spine and adjust the legs and feet is noted.
  • The blood vessels. The presence of abnormally dilated veins (varicose), usually in the legs, is noted.

In addition to assessing individual alertness and mental capacity during the initial conversation, the control of the nervous system may include:
  • Neurological screen. The individual's ability to make a few steps, hop, and it is deeply bent knee is observed. Force grip is felt. Sitting in an upright position, the reflexes in the knees and feet can be tested with a small hammer. The sense of touch in hands and feet can be evaluated by testing reaction to pain and vibration.
  • 12-nerves in the head (skull) which are connected directly to the brain. Check the sense of smell and taste, muscle strength in the head, reflexes in the eye, facial movements, gag reflex, vision, hearing, and muscles of the jaw. muscle and overall coordination, and reaction to pain medications, such as pain, temperature and touch can also be evaluated.

Readiness Diagnostic
Each test should be comfortable and treated with respect by the research. As the study continues, the examiners should explain what they do and to share relevant findings. Use language appropriate to improve the efficiency of the suspect promotes better communication and, ultimately, the relationship between the subjects examined and the examiners.

Before coming to health care, registration dates and important facts about their medical history, and family members. There should be a complete list of all medications and their doses. This list should include counter preparations, vitamins and herbal supplements. Some people their medication bottles with them. Any questions or concerns about drugs should be recorded.

Before the examination, empty the bladder. Urine samples are usually collected in a small container at this time. The urine is tested for the presence of glucose (sugar), proteins and blood cells. For some blood tests, individuals can be told in advance not to eat or drink for 12 hours before the test.
Proposers usually remove all clothing and put on a hospital gown in bulk. sheet is to keep people covered and comfortable during the examination.

Once the review is completed, the suspect and an expert must examine the laboratory tests were ordered, why they were chosen, and how and with whom the results will be available. Health professionals should discuss recommendations for the treatment and visits. Special instructions should be written. It is also an opportunity for people to ask questions about their other health problems.

There is virtually no risk associated with physical examination. Complications of the process of physical examination are not uncommon. Sometimes useful information or data can be neglected. Most often, the results of laboratory tests related to compel doctors to reconsider re-check the person or body parts have already reviewed. In a sense, complications can arise from the results of physical examination. These generally lead to further research or medical treatment. They are really more beneficial than negative, as is often the beginning of the process of treatment and recovery.

Normal results
appropriate outcomes corresponds to a physical examination looking healthy and smooth functioning of the body. For example, appropriate reflexes will be present, no lumps or suspicious changes are found, and life will be normal.

Abnormal physical examination does not contain conclusions that indicate the presence of disease, illness or underlying condition. For example, the presence of lumps or changes, fever, muscle weakness or absence of signal, weak responses to light, arrhythmias, or swollen lymph nodes indicate health problems possible.

Monday, September 6, 2010

Functions and Benefits of Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is the largest and most complex of all vitamins. Vitamin B12 is the generic name for a specific group of cobalt-containing corrinoids from biological activity in humans. What is interesting is the only known metabolite contains cobalt, which gives a water-soluble vitamin its red color. This group of corrinoids is also known as cobalamin. The principal cobalamins in humans and animals are hydroxocobalamin, adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin, the latter two are active coenzyme forms. Cyanocobalamin is a form of vitamin B12, which is widely used clinically because of the availability and stability. Converted into active agents in the body.
In 1934, three researchers won the Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering the exceptional properties of vitamin B12. It was found that the consumption of large quantities of raw liver, which contains large quantities of vitamin B12, can save the lives of patients with pernicious anemia previously incurable. This discovery allows you to save 10,000 people a year in the United States alone. Vitamin B12 was isolated from liver extract in 1948 and its structure was explained by seven years later.

Vitamin B12 is essential for the formation of blood cells, nerves, and covers the various proteins. It is therefore essential to prevent certain forms of anemia and neurological disorders. He is also involved in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates and is essential for growth. In humans, the functions of vitamin B12 mainly as a coenzyme in intermediary metabolism. Two metabolic processes depend on the Vitamin B12:
  1. The methionine synthase reaction with methylcobalamin
  2. Methylmalonyl CoA mutase reaction of adenosylcobalamin
In methylcobalamin form of vitamin B12 is a cofactor for methionine synthase directly, the enzyme that converts homocysteine back to methionine. There is evidence that vitamin B12 is essential for the synthesis of folate polyglutamates (active coenzymes necessary for development of neural tissue) and the regeneration of folic acid during the formation of red blood cells.
Methylmalonyl CoA mutase converts 1-methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl-CoA (reaction important in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates). Adenosylcobalamin is also a coenzyme in the ribonucleotide reduction (which provides blocks for the synthesis of DNA).
Food Sources
Vitamin B12 is produced exclusively by microbial synthesis in the gastrointestinal tract of animals. Therefore, the protein products of animal origin are a source of vitamin B12 in food, especially meat organs (liver, kidneys). Other good sources are fish, eggs and dairy products. Food, hydroxo-, methyl-and 5'-deoxyadenosyl Cbl-Cbl are the mainstream. Plant foods do not contain vitamin B12, except those from microbial contamination. The bacteria in the intestine synthesize vitamin B12, but not in normal conditions in the regions where absorption occurs.

Vitamin K and Its Benefits

Vitamin K, found in some vegetables, beef and chicken livers, even in ourselves. Yes, we have the opportunity of vitamin K - and we do, creating a third of what we need - by the bacteria in our intestines. In this article we will discuss what is vitamin K, which explains why it is important that you do not find that and much more. Here is a brief overview of what we cover.


First recognized by the Danish scientist, in 1929, Vitamin K is a huge benefit for the body. Not only helps blood clotting, vitamin K also helps build strong bones, contributing to a protein called osteocalcin It binds calcium, vitamin K, which means it can play a role in preventing osteoporosis. Learn more about this important vitamin to this page.

Foods that contain vitamin K

Some vitamin K is produced naturally in the body by bacteria, but it is our duty to contain vitamin K in our diet too. More foods containing vitamin K, including green leafy vegetables, spinach poor, broccoli, lettuce and beef, chicken, pork liver. Green tea is an excellent source of vitamin K. In this section you will learn which foods are the best source of vitamin K.

Vitamin k deficiency

Despite a healthy diet, vitamin K is sometimes down. liver disease or urinary bladder or gastrointestinal disease that interferes with the absorption of fat can cause a deficiency. So, the long-term antibiotic treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Infants are born without the bacteria necessary to create vitamin K Discover what factors may contribute to a lack of vitamin K.

Vitamin K intake

As in the case of newborns, some or liver disease, gallbladder or gastrointestinal patients, supplementation with vitamin K is sometimes necessary. But how much and who needs it? In this section, we examine the reasons why children receive vitamin K right after birth and who else will look for vitamin K. Too much vitamin K is toxic, reportedly is the key.

Benefits of vitamin K
Vitamin K plays an important role in the body - blood clotting and help to help retain calcium, which helps prevent osteoporosis. However, its value as a vitamin was not always known.

The importance of a power factor of blood coagulation first recognized by the Danish scientist. In 1929, reported that chicks fed a diet lacking a specific dietary factor hemorrhage. Blood clots slowly to control the bleeding. There is a lack of vitamin K factor

People who have problems absorbing fat, so vitamin K, including those on long-term antibiotic treatment may need to take supplements of vitamin K. When the time is slow blood clotting, vitamin K is given before surgery to prevent excessive bleeding.

Because of the ability of vitamin K to assist in the production of osteocalcin, calcium helps keep bones, or prevention of osteoporosis.

Women who have heavy periods, sometimes obtain relief supplement the diet of vitamin K. Even if the level of this vitamin in the blood is within normal range, supplements to reduce excessive bleeding in some women.

Several small studies have also shown benefits for pregnant women. Small additional doses of 50 mg reduces the nausea often associated with the first trimester of pregnancy.

Vitamin K is in many foods. We will discuss foods that are best and how much you need in the next section.

Signs and Symptoms of Allergic

Another frequent cause of misinterpretation and dark circles and bags around the eyes, is in fact those caused by allergies and other allergic factors.
Commonly known as allergy "black eye and mimic the appearance of a black eye cause by the wrong person mad, those pesky pet can be a bit difficult to identify a few people and even harder to find the best action plan against it.
There are an infinite number of allergies that can contribute or add to the appearance of shadows caused by allergies, but in general can be found relate to sinus and nasal passages.
sinus problems and symptoms can lead to rapid development of bruising around the nose and eyes (notice how these sensitive and irritated when they have a cold for example) and the constant rubbing of the eyes, works to increase the domination angry and dark
Allergy treatment-related Dark Circle:
  1. Treating appropriate allergy medications is essential and if you notice more or draw a ring around the eye for the symptoms of allergies, get a professional diagnosis and sets the direction of it's best for you count on.
  2. Makeup and concealment techniques can help reduce and hide in the shadows this time, if you must go out, but you must stay home to rest and drink chicken soup with noodles stupid!
  3. Rubbing nose and eyes may be a worsening of the situation, caring and communication are not as active in the friction and itching to help reduce the problem of deteriorating.

Friday, September 3, 2010

The Basics of Femoral Hernia

Femoral hernias are much more common in women but can occur in men. These appear to be slightly below the groin, and are usually the result of pregnancy and childbirth. Weakness in the lower part of the intestine allows the groin down to the bag to the femoral canal, a place close to the femoral vein that carries blood from the legs. These hernias are more prone to choking in prison or early complications of inguinal hernias. Therefore, after the repair of hernias are diagnosed is very strongly against such complications.

Femoral hernias are more common in women, usually older and weak (although they can occur in children). It is now generally regarded as a lump in the groin. They may or may not be associated with pain. Often, they are varying degrees of complexity, irreducibility of intestinal obstruction of the bowel gangrene Frank closed. The incidence of strangulation in femoral hernias is high. femoral hernia are often proved to be the cause of unexplained bowel obstruction.

What is The Process of Hiatal Hernia

Hiatal hernia is anatomical abnormalities in which part of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm and chest. hiatal hernia, even if they are present in approximately 15% of the population, they are associated with symptoms of a small proportion of these victims.
Normally, the esophagus or food tube through the chest through the diaphragm, stomach and enters through a hole in the diaphragm called the esophageal hiatus. Just below the diaphragm, the esophagus joins the stomach. In patients with hiatal hernia, the opening of the esophageal hiatus (hiatal opening) is higher than normal, and part of the upper stomach slips or is (hernia) by breaking and chest. Although sometimes hiatal hernia in infants, which may be present from birth, hiatal hernia in the majority of adults believed that developed over many years.

It is thought that hiatal hernias are caused by a break more than usual the esophagus, the hole in the diaphragm through which esophagus thoracic cavity to the, in association with a large opening, part of the stomach "slips" in the chest. Other possible factors include:
  1. Persistent shortening of the esophagus (perhaps caused by inflammation and scarring of the esophagus or stomach acid regurgitation), which extends from the stomach.
  2. Extremely attachment loss of the esophagus to the diaphragm, which allows the esophagus and stomach to slip upwards.

via medicinenet

How do I Know The Umbilical Hernia and Its Treatment

Before you accept umbilical hernia, it is important to know everything you can about it. Information about this guide to symptoms and treatment of umbilical hernia, and is based on a medical practice. Each hospital and doctor have a slightly different way of doing things when it comes to an umbilical hernia, so follow their guidance where it is different from the information given here. Because all patients, the treatment and conditions vary not cover everything. Use this information to choose the form of doctors and treatment of umbilical hernia. It should be mentioned, have no worries. Remember, you can request more information at any time.
What is the problem?
Do you have pain or abdominal swelling button calls her navel. This is due to rupture, known as a hernia. Because of its position in the navel, cracks called umbilical hernia.
What is a hernia?
hernia sac is that it pushes the card through the muscle, as the abdominal wall. Before the birth of a child, there is always a gap, and the navel hernia, an umbilical cord that is attached to the child in the womb. Usually disappear before birth, but often there is a weakness in life.
What is the problem?
Bag or is lining internal hernia of the abdominal wall. Push through a weakness in the navel. The bag has a layer of fat on the inside and may be bowel or fatty tissue called omentum. Bag becomes progressively deeper and can be painful. The bowel and omentum can get stuck in the street. Their blood can be disabled and intestines and the omentum can suffocate and die. It causes vomiting, severe pain and very severe

Sometimes, the hernia occurs in the vicinity of the body wall weakens with the passage of time.
Sometimes, when the hernia is caused by coughing, heavy work or sports surge tissue.
Start hernias are very common and easily treatable, especially when small. If you are treated when they are small, to avoid suffocation, and the strongest repair.
The objectives are threefold.
  • To eliminate the intestine or omentum of the hernia. This usually means the delay in the abdominal cavity. If the bowel or omentum is strangulated, it may be deleted.
  • To remove or relocate the street.
  • To fix vulnerabilities to prevent the hernia back.
The most common way of doing this during sleep is under general anesthesia. Local anesthesia may be used for a very small hernia.
Please stop the pain and the swelling disappears. There should be no risk of strangulation.
Are there alternatives?
Wait and see if you have more difficulty, is justified if the hernia does not give any pain.
A large hernia can be a major operation. What is needed is a balance between the risks of surgery and the risk of strangulated hernia. Stomach, it may be advantageous if the operation could be dangerous.
few very large herniated bowel loops in them. If a loop strangulated may be safer to limit surgery to remove damaged bowel and does not add the risk of a hernia at the time.

via privatehealth

Signs and Symptoms of Hernia

Hernia occurs when the body or adipose tissue squeezes through a hole or weakness in the muscle or in the vicinity of the connective tissue called fascia. The most common types are inguinal (groin internal), postoperative (under the cut), the femoral (groin outside), umbilical (navel) and hiatus (upper stomach).

The inguinal hernia, intestines or bladder, which protrudes through the abdominal wall or inguinal canal in the groin. Approximately 80% of all inguinal hernias are more common in men because of the inherent weakness in this area.

Hernia in the scar, intestines, stomach pushes on the site of previous abdominal surgery. This type occurs more frequently in elderly or overweight patients who are inactive after abdominal surgery.

femoral hernia occurs when the intestine enters the canal carrying out the femoral artery in the thigh. Femoral hernias are most common among women, especially those who are pregnant or are obese.

The umbilical hernia, part of the small intestine through the abdominal wall near the navel. obese women Common newborns, but also affects those who often or have many children.

hiatal hernia occurs when the upper part of the stomach squeezes through breaks in the opening of the diaphragm through which the esophagus.

Ultimately, all hernias are caused by a combination of pressure and the opening or weakness of muscles or fascia: the pressure pushes the organ or tissue through an opening or weak point. Sometimes the muscle weakness is present at birth, often occurs later in life. Poor diet, smoking, excessive effort, and all can weaken muscles and make a hernia more likely. Anything that causes an increase in abdominal pressure can cause a hernia, including obesity, heavy lifting, constipation or diarrhea, or persistent coughing or sneezing.

via articlesnatch

Cause of The Appendicitis

Appendicitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the appendix (see photo below). It is a medical emergency. All cases require removal of appendicitis or laparotomy or laparoscopy. Untreated, mortality is high, mainly due to peritonitis and shock. Reginald Fitz first described acute and chronic appendicitis in 1886, and was considered one of the most common causes of serious worldwide acute abdominal pain. Than correctly diagnosed acute appendicitis form is known as "rumbling appendix.
Appendicitis occurs when the appendix is blocked, often a stool, a foreign body, or cancer. Blocking can also produce infection, such as the appendix swells in response to infection in the body.

The symptoms of appendicitis typically include:
  • Pain in the right side of the abdomen
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Inability to move the gas
  • A low fever that begins after other symptoms
  • Swelling of the abdomen
  • Anorexia (loss of appetite)
Once the diagnosis of appendicitis is appendectomy is usually performed. Antibiotics are almost always started before surgery and once suspected appendicitis.
There is a small group of patients with inflammation and infection of appendicitis remain mild and localized in a small area. The body is able not only to contain the inflammation and infection but to resolve this. These patients are usually not very bad condition and improve a few days of observation. This type of appendicitis is referred to as "limited appendicitis" and may be treated with antibiotics alone. Adding or may not be removed at a later date.

via farzanesfandiar

Thursday, September 2, 2010

Thyroxine Hormone Function

To read this page, the body temperature must be at a certain level. If the temperature falls or rises too much, you die. For this reason, some systems that maintain body temperature at a certain level have been created and placed inside the human body. One such system is an unusual hormone thyroxine. The body reaches a certain temperature after the 100 billion cells. We compared these cells to micro-heaters, and a single molecule, which controls the amount of heat that each micro-heater must provide a hormone thyroxine.
That in itself is strange that the cells produce a certain amount of heat as they do their job and that the total amount of heat produced by the 100 trillion cells is exactly the amount that may be necessary for humans to survive. In addition, the molecules of thyroxine to know how many cells of the warmth needed. With all this the fact that the cells on how they can work on the metabolism and increase body temperature is still a miracle of creation.
The Delicate Control Mechanism
Very advanced and organized system was created to regulate the amount of thyroxine secreted. secretion of thyroxine occurs again after all unconscious subordination of cells organized in a hierarchy very disciplined.
When thyroxine is needed, the system of the brain hypothalamic hormone - sends a command (TRH, thyroid releasing hormone) to the conductor of the orchestra of hormones (pituitary gland). After receiving instructions from the pituitary that includes the thyroid must be activated and immediately sends a command (TSH-TSH) in the thyroid. The thyroid, as the last point in this chain of command immediately releases thyroxine online and distributed throughout the body as blood.

When there is a need for thyroxine, the hypothalamus sends a command to the pituitary gland (TRH). pituitary gland, which receives the command assumes that the thyroid needs to be enabled. Pituitary immediately sends a command to the thyroid (TSH). In accordance with the contract, he immediately receives the thyroid produces thyroxine and thyroxine is distributed throughout the body via the bloodstream.
How is the amount of this hormone that is secreted must be determined? How is it that, except in case of sickness, no more or less of this hormone that is needed is excreted?
The amount of thyroxine secreted is determined by a special system created by the great art of God. This system is based on two distinct mechanisms for negative feedback and is an example of incomparable miracle of engineering design.
If the amount of thyroxine in the blood rises above normal, the hormone thyroxine creates a very interesting effect on the pituitary gland, and sometimes directly into the hypothalamus: reduced sensitivity of pituitary hormone TRH.
hormonal function is to activate TRH pituitary to send a command (a hormone TSH) in the thyroid. This command is the second point of command in the production of the hormone thyroxine.
The system is designed such that an excess of thyroxine is a very intelligent action so that the source, which is in itself did not do too much, and it is disturbing and Severe command set for its own production . Thus, when thyroxine in the blood rises above normal production of thyroxine is automatically curtains.
We can easily understand the examples: Imagine that a small intelligent machines were made in a factory. These machines were made in three steps:
  1. First Step: Production of the computer sends a command to computer B. 
  2. Step Second: B, computer translates the command into another language and sends it to computer C.
  3. The third stage: the computer C starts the desired device using a robot.
Suddenly, the production exceeds what is required and may not be able to more machines are needed. At this stage, one of the machines of the time goes to computer B and remove the cable from computer to computer B, A. Now, computer B can not receive commands from a command A. Because your production does not reach the C computer, stopping production and computers in the last action until they are exhausted. When time runs out, the cable connecting the computer to computer B through the machine and resume production.
If this were the machines that can monitor their own production and the machines that produce them so intelligently, the revolution in industry and technology will result. In every man there is such a wonderful system of production that occurs every minute.
The second system determines the amount of production of thyroxine. Increasing amounts of thyroxine affects cells of the hypothalamus. These cells reduce the production of TRH, and thus the amount of TSH secreted by the pituitary gland is reduced. In this way, the production of thyroxine is slowed.
  1. The first computer sends a production order on computer B.
  2. Computer B is the second course, she translates and sends it to computer C.
  3. The third computer C starts the device by using a robot mounted on it.

When too much time has arisen, one of these machines goes to computer B, and cuts its link with the computer A. Accordingly, the computer can not issue the command output. This situation lasts until stocks are exhausted.

In this example, the factory, it is useful to consider the other system. Effect of thyroxine on the hypothalamus and reduce the production of TSH can be compared to machines produced in our factory imagination, which slow the flow of information on this computer. Not only for communication between computer A and B, the computer is in pieces, but the computer is slow, and thus prevent the sending of commands to the computer B.
If the amount of thyroxine in the blood is reduced, the system works in the opposite direction. Other commands are sent from the computer and the possibility of computer B to receive these commands is increased. Accordingly, the hypothalamus secretes more hormones TRH, the pituitary gland becomes more sensitive to TRH, and increases the production of the hormone TSH. In this way, more thyroxine is produced and secreted.
How do you know that the hormone thyroxine command structure must be broken in order to stop its production? Since the cells of the hypothalamus know when thyroxine levels are high, the release must be stopped and if it is low, its secretion should be increased? How to improve the current system?
Think that is carefully planned system came to be by time, chance and natural law is more outside the sphere of thought of her to think that your computer or television can be formed by a similar process . For this system to function, hundreds of specially designed molecular structures of the companies (which are not described in detail) are mandatory. It is clear that this system has been created by a supreme intelligence.
Four in ten thousand molecules
The amount of thyroxine secreted is determined by the incredible system we have described above. But with all this, there is another system that maintains a remarkable level of thyroxine in the blood at a constant level during the crisis.
Thyroxine molecules are secreted by the thyroid gland in the blood and quickly became attached to particles specially designed to be transported in the blood. When you are attached to this molecule, can not perform their duties. With a thousand molecules of thyroxine, a bit of movement in the blood. It is only about four in ten thousand molecules of thyroxine, which affects the rate of metabolism in cells.
After the free thyroxine molecules into target cells, other molecules of thyroxine that the posting of transport molecules in their place. carrier molecules serve as storage tank to ensure that sufficient thyroxine is ready, if necessary.
We have seen how delicate the balance amount of thyroxine must affect the cell is regulated and the health problems that can occur when the amount increases or decreases of thyroxine. This involves a delicate balance between the four parties of ten thousand without thyroxine binding molecules. Therefore, these questions must be asked:
Who has trillions of molecules, and decided that only about four in ten thousand are needed for human health? Who has calculated that 9996 molecules for every ten thousand molecules must stand by? Who supplies that will reduce the number of these four molecules per ten thousand molecules of homelessness in the veins, and releases more molecules? Who created this amazing mathematical calculations and created the system that exists in every person ever born?

Know Your Fight or Flight Mechanism

                                                               figure via oliciouslife

Fight or flight mechanism takes over when we are dealing with a situation where we feel threatened or overwhelmed. It is built for us! When you see a bear while camping in the woods, escape, or run like a banshee security. The symptoms of fight or flight is caused by the sympathetic nervous system.

There are two parts of our nervous system:
  1. a beautiful piece is part of our nervous system, which allows us to run or fight.
  2. parasympathetic nervous system calms us.

We need both of these two parts of the nervous system to normal functioning in life. If the sympathetic nervous system works Amok, it can give us ulcers and panic attacks. When the sympathetic nervous system parasympathetic nervous system is paramount, as it's known as a nice ride. But what most people do not know what and most doctors do not know that this response can be initiated by the imbalance in the head or skull and imbalance compensation of the first vertebra or atlas. Even craniosacral therapists know about it. It is very new, but very deep! More potential patients and physicians learn more about what this knowledge will emerge.
Some physical symptoms of upper cervical transfer are:
  1. Pain in the upper part of the cervix.
  2. Traffic fell in the upper neck of the uterus, usually turning right or left.
  3. A feeling of fullness in the ear or ears.
  4. Dizziness
  5. Swelling around the ears, the occipital region, or swelling around the bone of the skull around the ear.
  6. Swelling and flaccidity of the occipital / atlas to join the parietal lobes, (although more common in the parietal region), both left and right.
  7. Headache, like a burning sensation.
  8. Pain in the right eye or left (but more common in the right eye, where the sun enters the orbit of the artery in the eyebrow, located within in the eyebrows).
  9. Remote disc pain in another area in the back, for example, if you press the tumor to the Atlas Mountains, bursting pain in the C5 or any other downstream area of the occipital / atlas of the region, area does not feel the performance record of the spinal cord in a more distal site. (Please note that this is the whole system hydraulic pressure on one point put pressure on another place, because the nature of fluid motion and flow.
  10. Temporal pain and swelling of the jaw joints.
  11. Pain in the temples, both left and right.
  12. Sinus pressure and pain in the entire skull.

Above are just some of the symptoms may be more physical, but the body's response to the pressure on institutions Dura-magnum in the field foreman, or craniosacral shift.

Symptoms of excessive sympathetic drive:
  1. Dizziness
  2. Stomach
  3. Anxiety
  4. Insomnia
  5. Irritability
  6. Light sensitivity
  7. Unable to concentrate
  8. Depression
  9. Muscle spasms
  10. Rapid heart
  11. Irregular heartbeat
  12. Burning  in the head and shoulders felt on the skin.
  13. Panic attacks
  14. It is difficult to take a deep breath.

In principle, all the above symptoms are due to the fact that when the configuration of shear occurs in the Atlas / area of the skull, cranial sacral pump is not working properly. If the pump does not work properly, it makes the fight or flight to "wake up". This fight or flight is the defense mechanism of the body. Nice torque system generally works with the sympathetic nervous system. By working together we have the healthy function of relaxation and alertness. We manufacture in our time, because I sleep well at night and have a normal response to stress of the day.
If we are unable to replace a beautiful, our minds have become volatile, and we over react to even small stresses during the day. When they are alone and when he is calm, the anxiety and fear may begin to worry. Many people feel the symptoms of sympathy and replace the feeling of taking drugs to get to each day, and another medication to sleep at night. I would say it is better to go to the root of the problem. So you can see above from the transfer of cervical symptoms, neck pain, it is only a small part of the image. The correction of this change can be either the life or lives of others, according to the doctor.

via ezinearticles

Adrenaline Benefits

                                                              figure via adrenalfatigue

No bigger than a walnut and weighing less than a grape, each of the two adrenal glands sits like a pyramid, above the kidney ("ad" "renal" means "above", "kidney" ). But do not be fooled by their size, these powerful little endocrine glands manufacture and release of steroid hormones such as cortisol, estrogen and testosterone, which are essential to life, health and vitality. They affect the functioning of all tissues, organs and glands of the body to maintain homeostasis during stress and survive. They also have a significant impact on how they think and feel.

The main purpose of your adrenals is to enable the body cope with stress from all possible sources of injury and illness, work and relationship problems. They largely determine the energy of the body to respond to any changes in the internal and external environment. Is the attack signal, retirement or transfer, each cell responds accordingly, and feel the results. It is by the adrenal hormones that the body is able to mobilize their resources to fight or flee from danger (stress) and survive. The most primitive society, it would be able to quickly flee, fight or pursue the enemy or game, to endure long periods of physical challenge and poverty, and write to physical reserves when they are available. In modern society, the same reactions are caused by such circumstances, difficult boss, air pollution, family quarrels, financial problems, too little sleep (see Conditions of health - sleep disturbance) diseases * (see health conditions - chronic) * abuse or sensitivity to foods (see health conditions - allergies) * or drugs (see Health Conditions - Alcoholism and Addiction) .* If the adrenal is low, as is adrenal fatigue, the body has trouble responding to an adequate adaptation to these stresses .* This can lead to various problems of physical and mental, which are themselves an additional source of stress .*

It also works to keep the adrenal glands in response to stress balance, so they are appropriate and safe. For example, the protective effect of anti-inflammatory hormones and anti-adrenals such as cortisol helps to minimize negative reactions and allergic reactions (such as swelling and inflammation) to alcohol, drugs, food the environmental allergens, cancer, infections and autoimmune diseases. These hormones closely affect the utilization of carbohydrates and fats, processed fats and proteins into energy, the distribution of stored fat regulation (especially around the waist and side of face), normal blood sugar in the blood and the proper functioning of the digestive and circulatory system. Since mid-life (menopause in women), the adrenal glands gradually become the main source of sex hormones circulating in the body in men and women. These hormones themselves a lot of physical, emotional and psychological level of sex drive tend to gain weight. Every athlete knows that steroids (adrenal hormones) affect muscular strength and endurance.

Even the propensity to develop certain diseases and the ability to respond to chronic diseases affecting the adrenal glands .* significantly more chronic diseases becomes more critical the adrenal response. Can not live without your adrenal hormones, and as you can see in this brief review of well-being depends very much on how the functioning of the adrenal glands.

Denial - The Psychodynamic Theories of Sigmund Freud

Denial is a refusal to recognize the existence or severity of unpleasant realities external or internal thoughts and feelings.

                                                              figure via antipinoy

In psychology, denial is a concept derived from psychodynamic theories of Sigmund Freud. According to Freud, three mental dynamics, or motivating forces that influence human behavior: the id, ego and superego. Id contains basic survival instincts and what Freud considered that the two dominant human drives: sex and aggression. If D was the only influence on behavior, people are not just more fun, reduce pain and achieve instant gratification. The ego consists of logical and rational. It allows people to analyze the risks and benefits of realistic situations, to tolerate the pain of future profits, and to consider alternatives to a behavior-based ID movement. Superego consists of moral standards and is the basis of consciousness. Although the superego is essential for the sense of good and evil, there can be extreme, unrealistic ideas of what should and should not do.

These forces have different objectives (id, pleasure, ego, reality, superego, morality), and constantly strive for domination, as a result of internal conflicts. This conflict creates anxiety. I, who acts as an intermediary between the two extremes of the id and superego, attempts to reduce this fear by using defense mechanisms. defense mechanisms are indirect ways to treat and cope with fear, as he explains away problems or blame others for problems. Denial is one of many defense mechanisms. This involves ignoring or refusing to believe the unpleasant reality. defense mechanisms protecting mental health in traumatic situations, or in any situation that creates anxiety or conflict. But they do not resolve the situation of unrest and production, if misused, can lead to mental disorders. Although the identity model of Freud, ego and superego is not stressed by most psychologists today, defense mechanisms are still treated as potentially incorrect behavior, which can lead to disorders mentally.

Examples of Denial
Death is common during the refusal. When someone learns the sudden and unexpected death of a loved one, first, it will not be able to accept the reality of the loss. initial refusal to protect that person from shock and pain that often accompanies death. chronic or terminal illness to encourage refusal. People with these diseases may be thinking, "This is not so bad, I am, and refuse to make changes in lifestyle.

Refusal may also refer to internal thoughts and feelings. For example, some children learn that anger is bad in any situation. As adults, they experience feelings of anger they may deny their feelings of others. cultural norms and expectations may be encouraged to refuse to subjective experience. Men who belong to a culture with the greatest concept of masculinity can see fear as a sign of weakness and to deny the inner feelings of fear. The Chinese culture is designed to discourage the recognition of mental illness, which robs people of their symptoms of mental and physical symptoms that often develop instead.

Some personality disorders are generally characterized by denial more than others. For example, people with narcissistic personality disorder to deny information that suggests they are not perfect. Antisocial behavior is characterized by the refusal to harm others (eg, sex offenders or drug addicts).

Refusal to be issued on a large scale between the groups, cultures and even nations. Lucy Bregman gives an example of national denial of direct mortality in 1950: Students participated in exercises in which hidden under the desk in preparation for atomic attacks. Another example of refusal on a large scale is the recent discovery that some do the Holocaust of the Second World War took place.

Treatment of Denial
The refusal is treated differently in different types of therapy. In psychoanalytic therapy, the situation is regarded as an obstacle to progress that must eventually stand, and interpreted. Time is important, however. psychoanalytic therapists await customers seem emotional or, in some insight into how their problems they face. Humanistic and existential therapies, denial is considered in which clients understand their world. Not directly face denial, therapists help clients explore their world view and consider other ways of being. In cognitive behavioral therapy, refusal is not regarded as an important phenomenon. On the contrary, the refusal suggests that the entity has not learned the appropriate behaviors to cope with stressful situations. Therapists help people in the study of thoughts and behavior current and develop opportunities for strategic change.

Traditional treatment programs for drug and other dependencies to deny that the main theme. These programs teach that to overcome the addiction, I must admit that addiction to alcohol. Those who are unable to accept such labels are informed that they are in denial. Even if the labels are accepted, people are still considered a refusal, if you do not recognize the severity of their addiction. From this point of view, development can not be considered as persons in their employment, and denied. But there are many controversies in the field of substance abuse on the role of denial and how it should be treated. Traditional programs stress a direct confrontation. Other experts do not insist on the adoption of the label. They believe that the refusal must be worked through more subtle, empathic, focusing on the personal reasons for refusal and around trying to reinforce the desire to change. This subtle form termination for refusal is known as therapy improved motivation, and can be used with other types of disorders, as well.

Signs and Symptoms of Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils caused by infection. In tonsillitis, the tonsils are enlarged, red, and often covered by a substance that is yellow, gray or white. Tonsillitis usually begins suddenly, sore throat and painful swallowing. Tonsillitis usually spreads from person to person by contact with fluids nose or throat of someone who is already infected. If angina is caused by a virus, the disease depends on the length of the virus is involved. Usually, people are almost completely restored within 1 week. However, medications can be prescribed to relieve symptoms.
Symptoms vary from person to person. Some of the main symptoms are sore throat, fever, redder than normal tonsils, chills, a yellow or white paint on the tonsils, the funny voices, lymph nodes in the neck, and bad breath.
Home Remedy for Tonsillitis
Tonsillitis treatment effectively close to home, follow these tips, you can try at home.
  • Teaspoon salt Mix in eight ounces of hot water. Gargle the whole mixture several times a day. It will increase blood flow to the area, allowing a better flow of the fight against infection antibodies.
  • The milk was beneficial in the treatment of tonsillitis. In a glass of boiled milk, add a pinch of turmeric powder and pepper. Drink every night for about three days.
  • Add the juice of one lemon and a teaspoon of salt in glass of warm water. Gargle three times a day for one minute.

Causes of Anemia

Definition of Anemia
Anemia (lack of oxygenated blood around the body kidney hematic)

Symptoms of Anemia
  • pale skin.
  • eyelids pale.
  • pale lips.
  • pale nails.
  • spoon nails because of lack of iron.
  • pale gums.
  • brittle hair.
  • respiration increases.
Hemoglobin in Red Blood Cells

Causes of Anemia
anemia is caused by lack of oxygen in the blood. The main reason is lack of iron (the main component of hemoglobin) in blood. Protein deficiency, folic acid, vitamin B6, B12, C and others caused by anemia.

Anemia Picture
balanced diet, eat healthy foods, especially those containing large amounts of iron.

Some recommendations
lentil soup with spinach, egg yolks, dried plums, broccoli, turnips and whole grains (with husk).

If you are still anemic conditions, especially for pregnant women, consult your doctor.

Food additives proposed:

Extra dose
  • 02/day iron folic acid to the total exemption
  • Multivitamin 02/day until the total exemption
  • Calcium and magnesium 03/day until the total exemption

Proposal of vitamins and minerals

Folic acid - 50 mg of B6 - 50 mg B12 - 100 mcg
C - 500-1000 mg of iron - from 50-80 mg

via helpfulhealthtips

Wednesday, September 1, 2010

What Benefits Blood Transfusion

What is blood transfusion?
A blood transfusion is safe, common procedure in which blood is administered intravenously (IV) in a blood vessel. Blood transfusions are performed to replace blood lost during surgery or because of serious injuries. Transfusion may also be made if the agency can not make blood properly because of illness. During blood transfusion, a small needle used to insert IV lines in a blood vessel. In this line appears healthy blood. The procedure usually lasts from 1 to 4 hours, depending on the amount of blood you need.

                                                              figure via nursingcourses

Blood transfusions are very common. Each year, nearly 5 million Americans need blood transfusions. Most blood transfusions well. Mild complications can occur. Very rarely, serious development problems.

Important information about Blood
The heart pumps blood through a network of arteries and veins throughout the body. The blood has many important positions. Gate of oxygen and other nutrients to body organs and tissues. A healthy blood supply is important for overall health.

Blood is made up of different components, including red cells, white cells, platelets (plate allows) and plasma. Blood transfusion or whole blood (his hand) or, more often, as individual pieces.

Blood Types
Each person has one of the following blood types: A, B, AB or O. In addition, each person is either a blood Rh-Rh-positive or negative. So if you have blood type is positive or negative.

Blood transfusion must work with a group of blood. If not, antibodies (proteins) in the blood attack the fresh blood and cause nausea.

Blood type O is safe for almost everyone. About 40 percent of the population has blood type O. People who have this type are called universal blood donors. Blood type O is used in emergencies when there is no time to study people's blood.

People who have blood group AB are called universal recipients. This means they can get all kinds of blood.

If you have Rh-positive blood can be obtained from blood Rh positive or Rh negative. But if you have Rh negative blood, to be Rh negative blood. Rh-negative blood is used in emergencies when there is no time to study Rh-type person.

Blood banks
blood banks collect, analyze and store blood. Read all the blood possible infectious as viruses that can cause nausea. (For more information, see "What are the risks of blood transfusion?")

Bank staff also screen blood for each donation of blood to see if a type A, B, AB or O, and if she is Rh positive and Rh-negative. The first blood that does not work with his own blood will be very sick. This is why blood banks are very cautious when a blood test.

To prepare a blood transfusion, blood banks to remove some white blood cells. This process is called white blood cells or leukocytes (LU-ko-site) reduction. Although rare, some people are allergic to white blood cells in donated blood. The removal of these cells causes allergic reactions less likely.

Not all transfusions of blood donated the use of a stranger. If you are having surgery, you may need a blood transfusion due to blood loss during surgery. If this is something you are able to plan in advance, your doctor may ask you if you want to use his own blood, no blood.

If you choose to use his own blood, the blood must have taken one or more times before the operation. Blood bank storage of blood for use.

Alternatives to blood transfusion
Scientists are trying to find ways to make blood. There are currently no alternative to human blood of man. However, scientists have developed a drug that may help resolve the question of certain parts of blood.

For example, some people who have kidney problems, can now take a drug called erythropoietin, which helps the body to more red blood cells. This means they have less need for blood transfusions.

Doctors are trying to reduce the amount of blood lost during surgery so that fewer patients required blood transfusion. Sometimes it can collect and use blood for the patient.

via nhlbi