Vitamin D is essential for the proper functioning of the body. It is fat-soluble vitamin that regulates calcium and phosphorus in the blood and helps to absorb these minerals in food in the intestine. also manages the re-absorption of calcium in the kidneys. The sun is the main source of vitamin D in our body. Currently, products such as milk, orange juice, cereals fortified with vitamin D, to remedy the situation. Low levels of vitamin D may be a lot of vitamin D deficiency symptoms are sometimes difficult to interpret.
Vitamin D inhibits the release of parathyroid hormone, a hormone that causes bone resorption. also helps to avoid the risk of many diseases like cancer, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Vitamin D with calcium and phosphate in normal blood, and thus promote bone health. People who have low levels of vitamin D in the body, and the lack of sufficient calcium, the body begins to extract calcium from bones. Vitamin D is needed for strong bones and teeth, and bodily functions. Vitamin D may also have other benefits, such as muscles and improving immune function, but these areas requires further study.
Recent studies suggest that Finland and more levels of vitamin D are associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease. low sunlight led to a chronic lack of nutrients, vitamin D. For the first time, scientists at the National Institute of Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland, the theory that Parkinson's "may be caused by insufficient vitamin D always leads to a chronic loss of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. "At the risk of Parkinson's disease, as levels of influence of vitamin D can not be explained by scientists, but they said that nutrients, has shown that to exert a protective effect on the brain through an antioxidant action, regulation of calcium levels, detoxification, modulation of the immune system and increase neuronal conduction of electricity.
Sources of vitamin D
Under the influence of sunlight, vitamin D is found in the skin. The required amount of sunlight to produce adequate amounts of vitamin D depends on the person, age, color, sun exposure, and underlying medical problems. On aging, the production of vitamin D decreases the skin. In addition, people who need more darker skin exposure to sunlight to synthesize enough vitamin D, especially in the winter months.
Food is another important source of vitamin D, which can occur naturally (in fatty fish, cod liver oil, and [less] eggs). In the market enriched cow's milk is the largest source of vitamin D in the diet, containing approximately 100 IU of vitamin D for 8 oz. To estimate the dose of vitamin D, you can multiply the number of glasses of milk consumed per day by 100 (2 cup milk = 200 IU vitamin D). Cereals and bread are often fortified with vitamin D. The cod liver oil contains vitamin D, but also contain high doses of vitamin A and vitamin excessive consumption may be associated with side effects including liver damage and bone.
Causes of vitamin D below
The main causes of low vitamin D are: Lack of vitamin D in the diet, often in combination with insufficient exposure to sunlight
- Inability to process vitamin D because of kidney or liver
- inability to absorb vitamin D in the intestine
Infants, children and the elderly are exposed to low levels of vitamin D due to insufficient vitamin D. Human milk has low levels of vitamin D in infants and most do not contain enough vitamin D. Consequently, children are exposed to low levels of vitamin D. Older people are exposed to low levels of vitamin D because of inadequate intake of foods rich in vitamin D, and even when we eat, the absorption may be limited.
Sun exposure is not enough:
Infants and children are often recommended by their parents to avoid exposure to sunlight, which reduces the synthesis of vitamin D in the skin. As a source of vitamin D in sunlight is not available for infants and young children because of potential long-term skin cancer.
People who have limited sunlight are also at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency, especially in people with darker skin. In addition, the reduction of vitamin D in the skin and stored in the body in the process of aging. In the summer of repeated use of sunscreen blocks vitamin D synthesis.
Illness or surgery that affects the absorption of fat:
body's ability to absorb adequate amounts of vitamin D through the gastrointestinal tract is affected certain diseases, including celiac disease, Crohn's disease and cystic fibrosis.
Operation to eliminate or avoid part of the stomach or intestines can also lead to low levels of vitamin D. Gastric bypass is an example of this type of surgery.
Kidneys and Liver
Liver and kidneys contain important enzymes, which convert sunlight into vitamin D or food to a biologically active form of vitamin D. People with chronic kidney disease and liver failure, so that these enzymes have an increased risk of vitamin D. low
familial diseases that weaken the liver or kidney enzymes that produce biologically active form of the vitamin, are less common causes of vitamin D. Therefore, the number of active vitamin D is produced in the body lack.
Low level of potential complications of vitamin D in the body
Vitamin D plays an important role in many places throughout the body, including the development and calcification of bones. Low levels of vitamin D affect bone (skeletal) body. Low blood calcium (hypocalcemia), low phosphate in the blood (hypophosphatemia), rickets (softening of bones in children) and osteomalacia (softening of bones in adults) are the most serious complications of deficiency vitamin D in the body. These complications have become less popular over time, because many foods and beverages were added vitamin D.
Rickets is a childhood disease of the body is characterized by slow growth and long bone deformities, such as the bones of the leg. The condition of the bone caused by deficiency of calcium and vitamin D in infancy. It can have very serious effects on bone development. Fortified milk is often prescribed by doctors for people suffering from rickets.
In adults, low vitamin D can cause bone thinning, referred to osteomalacia. It is characterized by bone fragility and proximal muscle weakness that can even do harm. inadequate consumption of food or defective metabolism of vitamin D and calcium (calcium deficiency symptoms) is the leading cause of osteomalacia.
Low levels of vitamin D can cause other diseases, osteoporosis. Adult women are more affected by this disease. This condition is characterized by decreased bone mineral density and increased bone fragility. Increases the risk of fractures in osteoporosis. Osteoporotic fractures occur in a small amount of stress and occur in a typical fracture of the spine, hip and wrist.
The diagnosis of low levels of vitamin D in the body:
A blood test called the 25 hydroxyvitamin D or 25OHD (OH = hydroxy vitamin D = D) can be diagnosed with low levels of vitamin D in the body. Despite the absence of a formal definition of vitamin D deficiency, some groups use the following values in adults:
- Normal levels of vitamin D: 25OHD concentration above 30 ng / ml (75 nmol / L)
- Vitamin D deficiency: concentration of 25OHD 20-30 ng (/ 50 ml to 75 nmol / L)
- Vitamin D deficiency: 25OHD level below 20 ng / ml (50 nmol / L)
Who needs a study on the level of vitamin D?
The diagnosis of low levels of vitamin D is not proposed for each. This test can be recommended for people who are connected at home or in residential long-term care (eg nursing home) if the person has a disease that increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency, and for each of osteoporosis or low trauma fracture (ie fracture after a fall in orders), calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) or phosphate (hypophosphatemia).
Treatment with vitamin D deficiency
Supplements of vitamin D:
In the treatment of vitamin D deficiency or kidney disease, many types of preparations of vitamin D are available. Ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and vitamin D3 cholecalciferol () are two commonly available forms of vitamin D. Vitamin D3 is the natural form of vitamin and can raise the levels of vitamin D more effectively. Yes, it is usually recommended, rather than vitamin D2.
People who have diseases or conditions that prevent normal absorption of vitamin D (eg, kidney or liver), the recommended dose of vitamin D will be determined individually.
People who have vitamin D levels are normal (> 30 ng / mL [≥ 75 nmol / L]) at a dose of 800 days IU of vitamin D is recommended.
Presence of vitamin D is significantly reduced by exposure to sunlight and milk products with vitamin D.