Hepatitis, which is most often caused by viruses, but can also be caused by chemicals, drugs, alcohol, inherited diseases or autoimmune diseases. Inflammation can be sharp, bright, and then resolve in a few weeks to several months, or chronic, lasting for many years. Chronic hepatitis may persist for 20 years or more before causing significant symptoms related to progressive liver disease such as cirrhosis, liver cancer or death.
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The liver is an important organ in the upper right abdomen. performs many functions in the body, including the processing of nutrients in the body, production of bile to help digest fats, synthesizing many important proteins that regulate blood clotting, and distribution of potentially toxic harmless in the body can use or excrete. Inflammation may (in severe cases) to interfere with these processes and allow potentially toxic substances to accumulate.
Summarizes The Common Types of Hepatitis
- Viral infection, a hepatitis virus leads to inflammation may be acute or chronic, depending on the virus. Examples of reasons: the United States are the most common cause of hepatitis A, B and C viruses.
- Chemical or drug, the liver processes of many substances for the body to use and / or subsequently removed. Some of these substances are toxic to the liver and can lead to hepatitis. Examples of causes: acute or chronic exposure to alcohol, paracetamol.
- Inherited mutations in certain genes, which are transmitted from one generation to another can lead to disease, which destroys the liver, causing hepatitis. Examples of reasons: Wilson disease, hemochromatosis, alpha-1 antitrypsin
- Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), Fat deposited in the liver by increasing amounts of lead to reduce the amount of liver tissue. Examples of reason associated with metabolic syndrome.
- Autoimmune diseases, the immune system produces antibodies against correctly liver tissue. Examples of reason associated with type I diabetes, Sjogren's syndrome
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms of hepatitis are the same, whatever the cause, but they differ from person to person and may change over time. Many people have little, soft, and / or vague symptoms that can be confused with the flu. Some of the most common symptoms are:
Some people may experience additional symptoms such as loss of appetite, dark urine color, color, light and stools. More serious complications can include fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity (ascites), and confusion.
The test can show that the liver is tender and enlarged. Chronic hepatitis usually causes no symptoms or may be visible only as a loss of energy and fatigue. In some people, chronic hepatitis can gradually damage the liver and after many years, the causes of liver failure. Chronic form usually takes several years and rarely goes without treatment.
There are several laboratory tests that can be applied in the case of known or suspected hepatitis. These tests can be used for various reasons, and may belong to one or more of these categories:
General chemistry tests used to detect inflammatory lesions in the liver and / or damage
Screening tests used for detection of hepatitis, such as research on the effect of hepatitis B or hepatitis C can be made because of an increased risk of disease (drug use, many sexual partners) or at the time of blood collection.
The tests used to diagnose the causes of
Further studies are used to monitor the progression of hepatitis and / or guided therapy
Acute hepatitis is often suspected, and testing because of symptoms such as fever, loss of appetite, nausea, often with black stools, and yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes ( jaundice or jaundice).
Chronic hepatitis is usually detected as a result of abnormal results of routine tests. The patient is not having too few symptoms or wave of hepatitis can be discovered during routine tests, such as the comprehensive metabolic Group (CMP).
CMP is often a group of tests ordered as part of the annual review. It includes several tests of liver function panel. Research can be the first sign of liver inflammation or damage. Although these studies may help detect hepatitis, does not specify the cause. Additional tests may be needed to identify the cause and help direct treatment.
In addition to the CMP, other general criteria can be used to detect liver damage and advises on how they can be heavy. Some of them are listed below:
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) - an enzyme found mainly in the liver, the best test to detect hepatitis
Alanine Aminotransferase (AST) - an enzyme in the liver and some other places, especially the heart muscles and other
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) - an enzyme associated with the bile ducts, often when they are blocked, but can also be increased bone
Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT) - enzymes in the liver, which is very sensitive to changes in liver function, helps to distinguish the causes of elevated ALP, GGT, if increases, then due to increased liver ALP , bone disease.
Bilirubin - a product made from waste decomposition cell old, he is a yellow compound that causes jaundice and dark urine, when present in increased quantities.
Albumin - measures the main protein in the liver and advocates, as well as the liver, which is the protein
Total proteins - albumin and other proteins in the blood, including antibodies that help fight against infections
Prothrombin time (PT). This test can be ordered in a person with hepatitis or suspected hepatitis. Proteins used in the formation of blood clots (coagulation factors) are mostly produced in the liver and prolonged PT may indicate the degree of liver injury.
Liver biopsy, in which the needle is inserted into the liver to remove a small amount of cells are examined under a microscope by a pathologist, is the most crucial to diagnose the disease. Because it is an invasive procedure, it is mainly used when other tests are inconclusive, or to determine the extent of liver damage has occurred.
Imaging tests such as ultrasound and X-ray specialist can be used to evaluate liver function, to detect hepatitis, help make a diagnosis and help identify the cause of the color of the injury.