Firstly, what is coronary heart disease? Regarding the results of the coronary arteries of patients whose goal is to provide the heart muscle (myocardium) of blood.
These arteries surround the heart like a crown, and because it is a wreath at the Latin "corona", they are known as coronary arteries. Under normal circumstances, the blood flows through them unimpeded and sufficient oxygen and nutrients to support heart muscle contractions.
Figure 1 shows the appearance of the heart vessels that supply the heart muscle (the image is sprayed with a contrast substance - coronagraph).
A - right atrium
B - tricuspid valve
C - visualize the coronary arteries using imaging techniques coronagraphic
D - left ventricle
E - left atrium
Figure 2 shows the diseased, narrowed, hardened vessel.
A- The coronary artery
B - atherosclerosis
Figure 3 shows a blocked coronary artery and the area of myocardial infarction - heart.
A- The coronary artery
B - blocked artery in the area of myocardial infarction
B - blocked coronary artery
However, when the walls of these arteries narrow - which is most often caused by a process called atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries ") - an area of myocardial infarction not receiving an adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients, which can lead to heart attacks, which means that the blood vessels of the myocardium necrotises narrowed, which affects the overall performance of the heart.
The real causes and the development of atherosclerosis are not yet known, but we are confident that a number of risk factors that have contributed, some of which may be controlled by the user.
Among these risk factors are the excess fat and blood cholesterol, poor diet, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, lack of exercise, excessive stress, and others. Inherited genetic predisposition, of course, also plays a role.
Each of us can contribute actively to eliminate or reduce many of these risk factors at an early stage, not smoking, maintaining optimal weight, getting enough exercise, blockage of calories from food, particularly fats and sugars, by increasing our consumption of vegetables, fruit, fish and fiber, and regularly monitor your blood pressure (treatment, it is too high). In this way, we should behave, because it is always better than cure. But even now, when you already have heart disease, it is too late, and the sooner we doing this, you have a chance to prevent further damage.
Myocardial Infarction and Angina Pectoris
insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle often occurs when the strain, the requirements of the increased level of myocardial oxygen and reduces the coronary arteries are unable to supply enough oxygenated blood. The lack of blood to the heart muscle often causes a burning sensation in the left chest, left shoulder or neck. This pain is called angina pectoris. It is a transient pain, which ceases when the body no longer has to and after administration of pills or sprays nitrogylcerine, but it can cause pain in the longer term, which is also known to rest. If the closure of the coronary arteries leads to further complications - mostly blocked arteries by blood clot (thrombus), the vessels more closely, the blood flow is completely eliminated, and if not renewed in a very short period of time, lack of blood to heart muscle cells to make them disappear, which is a condition known as myocardial infarction. The question is how fast you can get help for the victim and the amount of heart muscle that had been destroyed. For this reason, it is always best to start by the beginning of treatment, ie at the stage of chest pain, and not after cardiac arrest.
You can not treat all patients who have been affected in this way only, or by pharmacological methods of interventional cardiology, for, in which the contraction of the enlarged using balloons and stents, which are usually inserted in groin. In some cases, according to specific criteria and based on a detailed analysis, the most appropriate treatment for heart disease is surgery. In terms of action on the arteries that supply the heart muscle, and in fact requires the establishment of the connection between the aorta and cardiac muscle to bypass the narrowed area. English term for this is a bridge to heart bypass, and that word certainly encountered during surgery is discussed. In most cases, are means that what is the leg veins or mammary artery along the inner side of the bridge, and sewn to the coronary artery narrowed the field to overcome. Artery of the forearm are now often used to restore blood flow in coronary arteries.
Image # 4 shows the bypass in place, bringing fresh, oxygenated blood to the heart muscle by a detour compressed, hardened parts of the coronary arteries.
All areas where the grafting adequate supply side allows us to add veins and arteries without adverse effects. Only the lower limbs, it may be a slight temporary swelling (before the nuclei remaining to adapt to new conditions of blood flow) at the time (6-8 weeks), members must be enclosed in elastic bandages.