Monday, August 23, 2010

How The Occurrence of Cough Process

The cough reflex is triggered by stimulation of sensory nerves in the lining of the airways - the tubes we use to breathe.
                                                                  figure via ucalgary

When a person coughs, shortness of breath and no consumption of the larynx (voice box) is currently closed. Abdominal and chest muscles used for breathing contract, which increases the pressure needed to drive air into the lungs when the larynx re-opens.

Following a breath of air comes out at high speed, street cleaning and removing dust, dirt or excessive secretions. Coughing is a symptom when the airways are 'tight', as in asthma.

Cough reflex is an important defense mechanisms of the body. Normally, the lungs and lower airways are sterile. If dust and dirt from entering the lungs can become a breeding ground for bacteria and cause pneumonia or respiratory infection in the tube.

What Causes Coughing?
Coughing usually means there is something in the airways, which should not be there. This may be caused by the inhalation of dust particles in the air or a piece of food down the wrong way.

It may also be a sign that the infection in the lungs that makes the airways produce mucus.

Cough Can Be Caused by:
  • Cold, which is a common cause of acute cough which generally within three weeks.
  • Material inlet of the breath paragraph.
  • serious illnesses like pneumonia, heart failure or acute pulmonary embolism (blood clot in blood vessels in the lungs).
  • Smoking, which causes a chronic cough (smoker's lung).
  • Asthma - particularly among children who can not cough and show no wheezing.
  • Stomach acid backs up into the esophagus and spill into the trachea (GERD).
  • Medicines used in heart disease called ACE inhibitors.
  • Bacterial or viral infection in the lungs, for example, acute bronchitis, pneumonia, whooping cough, croup in children.
  • Rarely coughing can be caused by mental illness.
  • Damage to the nerves that innervate the vocal cords (the chordpalsy voice) and a chronic cough may occur.
The cough is most effective if it is preceded by a full intake of air.

For this reason, patients with muscle weakness, poor coordination of airway closure and reopening, or airway obstruction (as in COPD) have a poor cough and be susceptible to complications, including infections lower respiratory tract and pneumonia.

How to treat coughs?
Coughing is a symptom, not disease. It is a cause of cough should be considered.
Please consult your doctor if any of the following symptoms accompany a cough, it is possible that the causes can be examined and treated if needed:
  • Coughing up phlegm that is green, rusty brown, yellow, or bloody odor strength
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty breathing or wheezing
  • Calf pain and swelling
  • Repeated coughing in the night
  • Whooping cough or croup
  • Smoking worsening cough
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Fever and sweating
  • Chronic cough hoarse voice that does not disappear spontaneously.

If you can not, but you have a cough, problems arise since. Similarly, when coughing is painful (for example, a broken rib), patients do not seek to cough and it can be dangerous.

ineffective airway can cause pneumonia and lung infections as possible. In these circumstances, the pain medication may be useful to allow effective monitoring of a cough.

Infection Airways
Respiratory infections in the tubes can be caused by bacteria and viruses, but the most common cause in children is a virus. Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, viral infections, but can not.

Vaccination significantly reduced the incidence of pertussis (whooping cough), but if it is diagnosed, antibiotic treatment with a macrolide antibiotic such as erythromycin decreases the severity of the disease in the first week of treatment.

Asthma may cause coughing without wheezing. This seems to be worse at night, disrupting sleep. This may be the first symptom of asthma in children, or a warning sign that asthma is worsening or inadequately controlled. Conventional treatment of asthma with inhaled anti-inflammatory and pain prevention usually relieve cough, which is due to asthma.

However, metered dose inhaler may even induce a cough, and may need to use a large volume spacer device or inhaler powder instead.

The gastroesophageal reflux requires treatment with antacids to neutralize stomach acid or H2 receptor antagonists or inhibitors of the proton pump to reduce gastric acid production.

Waiver of cigarettes to reduce or remove the smoker's cough "in 94 percent of people over four weeks.

ACE inhibitors
If an ACE inhibitor causes cough, crossing replacement therapy as an antagonist of angiotensin II will help.

How effective are cough medicines cons?
In cases where the cough is particularly annoying but not life threatening, a simple cough mixture may be useful. There are many prescription drugs that can be useful in such circumstances.

Given this is justified when there is no particular reason to suspect a serious underlying disease, such as the symptoms mentioned above. Ask your pharmacist for advice on which many resources available on the counter cough is good for you.

Production of the chest, coughing, phlegm, which is coughed, should be treated with an expectorant cough syrup cons to help loosen mucus and help you cough in the airways. Expectorants contain ingredients such as guaifenesin, ipecachuana or ammonium citrate.

nonproductive cough, dry or irritating Tickly, not coughed phlegm can be treated with cough medicine to reduce the cough reflex. Cough pholcodine filters, dextromethorphan and codeine. Other simple cough linctus filters, glycerine, lemon and honey, and the mantle, which soften the back of the throat.

Antihistamines such as diphenhydramine and promethazine reduce the cough reflex, nasal secretions and dry, which may be useful for coughs that are caused by postnasal drip (mucus running down the back of the throat) or are associated cold.

Ipratropium bromide nasal spray also reduces watery nasal secretions that can cause postnasal drip and help the cough.

Some measures also include coughing, sympathomimetics such as ephedrine, their effects on relaxation and breathing and decongestants may be useful if you have a stuffy nose and cough.

Patients should not be treated with a mixture of cough for more than two weeks. If the cough persists, a visit to the doctor is definitely required - informed medical help identify causes and provide treatment.

What if a Child has a Cough?
Older children and adults usually have an idea whether their cough is caused by foreign objects, dust, smoke particles, or a respiratory infection in the tube. controls show clinical signs that may indicate a specific cause.

If the cough of a young child, parents must be able to tell whether the cough is a symptom of the disease, if their child has a foreign body in the airways.

  • If your child also has fever or cold, cough is a symptom of infection. If nothing else seems to be wrong, wait for the cough to do. If the cough lasts more than a few days, consult a physician.

  • In the meantime, if you want to give your child medications to help relieve cough, it is preferable to use a simple cough syrup containing glycerol, honey or lemon. Other nonprescription cough and cold remedies cons are no longer recommended for children under six years, because there is no evidence that they work and can cause side effects such as allergic reactions, sleep disturbances and hallucinations. For children over six years, against cough and cold medicines are not yet available in pharmacies - ask your pharmacist. Each drug should be administered with caution to be administered by spoon or measuring device supplied to ensure the maximum is not exceeded.

  • Avoid using more than one cough and cold at the same time during the treatment of symptoms of the child. Various drugs can contain the same active ingredient (s) and using more than one may cause more than maximum recommended dose (s). Ask your pharmacist for more information.

  • When it comes suddenly and is coughing very strong, the child may have swallowed something that causes coughing. This can be life threatening for your child can suffocate. Lift your baby's legs down, so that their points of the head, then slap them back cupped hand. If this does not work, call an ambulance immediately.

  • If at any time your child seems very ill, you should contact the emergency doctor immediately.

The Diagnosis of Chronic Cough
If you suffer from a chronic cough, the test should be conducted to determine the cause.
  • After the initial assessment, the radiograph is taken to ensure that serious diseases like lung cancer and tuberculosis (TB) are unlikely.
  • Blood tests and skin are of little use, but may reveal trends in allergy.
  • Sputum (phlegm) examination for bacteria, cancer cells and tuberculosis can be controlled with noninvasive cardiac tests such as ECG, echocardiography, or even.
  • In difficult cases, additional tests may be considered, including the optic bronchoscopy, CT of the chest and sinuses, and even inhalation of methacholine or esophageal pH monitoring. They are only available in special centers.

Is this factor is responsible for chronic cough can be determined to treat the specific cause achieves a benefit for the patient.

But it is often more of a cough why a treatment is only one element can not completely alleviate the symptoms. It is frustrating for you and your medical advisor.

In this case, the gradual and incremental approach is appropriate. question begins focusing on the treatment and evaluation of results.

If this is not partial but incomplete response, other treatments tried in turn. Ultimately, the majority of the cough can be effectively managed in this way.

If treatment is ineffective without a real chance to work - for example in the case of lung cancer at advanced stage, the use of filters, a strong cough can be justified.

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