Antibiotics, in one form or another, have been used for centuries. Prehistoric man can not understand why and how many different organic and inorganic substances used at work. The important thing is that these substances are not, in fact, work. Before the advent of antibiotics, commercial, common sense approach to the course of infection was used: very little to treat infections of first allowing the body to fight naturally this way to create their own natural immunity. Only when the body is obviously not a victory at the Battle of response measures taken.ecdlcentar
In general, people rely on herbs and folk remedies. Ireland has a strong tradition of grass, a doctor or herbalist ready to help in the treatment of infections. As in many other cultures, more and more and use the knowledge of medicinal plants has been transmitted from generation to generation. Doctors depends largely on natural substances such as iron, mercury and antimony.
Only in the nineteenth century that scientists began to scrutinize various therapeutic substances to understand how and why they were effective. In this study, researchers found that there are beneficial bacteria. They began to experiment, to isolate the "good" bacteria and promote their development in laboratory conditions. These bacterial agents then tested for their ability to treat the disease. This model of scientific and clinical research continues in the twentieth century (in fact, continues to this day), which leads to the production of the first antibiotic drug.
From antiquity to the age of 19-th
The earliest evidence of people using plants or other natural substances for therapeutic purposes, from the Neanderthals, who lived about 50,000 years ago. In northern Iraq, archaeologists have discovered evidence of human remains that were buried in a number of plants, some of which are now known to be antimicrobial, it is used to kill bacteria and prevent them from multiply. Many of these herbs are still used by the inhabitants of the region today. And besides, many other antimicrobial substances, organic and inorganic, have been used over time.
The first order for the treatment of infections can also come from Egypt around 1550 BC. Written "mrht", "being" and "TTF" There were lots of bacon, honey, and lint, and was used as an ointment on the wound.
We know that honey is antibacterial, kills bacterial cells by drawing water from them. In addition, the enzyme INHIB-ine, which is found in honey, converts glucose and oxygen into hydrogen peroxide, a disinfectant known.
Currently, the injuries are very resistant to treatment with antibiotics, but honey, it heals a little difficulty. Honey is also excellent for the treatment of infected ulcers of varicose veins.
Tinct in linamenta Miss was lawfully prescribed to Roman times. Is substantially the same color as the Egyptians used, with honey as the active ingredient. The Greeks also used honey in wound dressings, often in combination with copper oxide. More recently, during the Second World War, a hint of honey and pork in Shanghai has been used to treat wounds and skin infections, and very good results.
Honey is not the only antibacterial substance by the Egyptians. aromatic resins such as frankincense and myrrh have been used to preserve dead bodies. Onions, which also has antibacterial properties, which are often found in the cavities of the body of the mummy.
anti-infective properties of onion and garlic have been confirmed by scientists in 1940. Substance called allicin has been isolated from these plants and is very effective in killing bacteria.
Another grass, radishes, have also been used therapeutically by the Egyptians. anti-infective properties of this herb has been confirmed by raphanin isolation, a substance that has a significant antibacterial activity against many infections.
Labour Alexander Fleming in 1920 showed that the forms, such as Penicillium., May produce antibacterial chemicals. But the use of forms dating back to ancient Egypt, and perhaps even earlier. The Egyptian doctor, quoted in the Ebers Papyrus of about 1550 BC, said that if the spoils of the wound. .. Then combine with the waste of barley bread. Indeed, the Egyptians used various forms of surface treatment of infections. The ancient Chinese also used to treat forms of boils, carbuncles and other skin infections.
Wine and vinegar are the treatment of infected wounds popular at the time of Hippocrates. Vinegar is a strong acid and the antiseptic, a substance that kills germs that cause disease. The antibacterial properties of wine can not be attributed to its alcohol content, because it is very low. Recent chemical analysis revealed the presence of the antibacterial substance of the wine called malvoside. It is a substance that is now thought to give the wine its antibacterial properties.
inorganic substances are also used to treat infections for centuries. Copper has been widely used by Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, often in combination with honey. Modern research has shown that copper is actually anti-bacterial. For example, a skin infection impetigo, which is caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, is treated in France Dalibour water, a combination of zinc and copper. This dates from the time of prescription Jacques Dalibour, surgeon general of the army of Louis XIV, but it can also be part of the French folk medicine long before that.
Century, 19 th and early 20 th
Nineteenth and early twentieth century saw the discovery and development of many new antibiotics. Most of them have been discovered as doctors and scientists are working to isolate and development of "good" bacteria, which can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases. Many different antibiotics have been discovered and developed.
Homeopathy is the use of minute quantities of substances that normally cause disease in healthy individuals, in order to accelerate the process of disease a patient to treat the disease. In Germany, there is a tradition of homeopathic medicines. Many doctors trained in the field of homeopathy, and there were many homeopaths as well as the laity.
From the mid-1800s until the turn of the century, homeopathic medicines were very popular in Europe and North America. However, as pharmaceutical companies have begun to rise, conventional medicine began to be a fortress for health services. Much of the infrastructure associated with conventional medicine, hospitals, medical schools, research and diagnostic X-ray machines, etc., were sponsored by pharmaceutical companies such as pharmaceutical companies began to dominate the medical field, it is not conventional medicine. In early 1900, the American Medical Association (AMA), secured by a strong political lobbies homeopathic to close many schools and hospitals. In 1920, the number of hospitals in the United States had fallen to only seven years.
AMA has found a powerful ally in the pharmaceutical industry, which may explain the considerable political power to AMA. This may also explain why most medical research is sponsored by pharmaceutical companies, and why medical students learn pharmacology (drugs) as their primary means of treating patients.
In the nineteenth century, various experiments have been conducted to try to find the magic, a powerful antibacterial substance that could free humanity from the scourge of infection. In 1877, in Paris, experiments have shown the benefits of harmless, "good" bacteria to treat or harmful bacteria. These experiments show that harmful bacteria may be used to compete with pathogens (harmful bacteria), but does not destroy pathogens.
Also in Paris, Louis Pasteur described the beneficial effects of the animal injected soil bacterium guise of fighting against anthrax. Many other experiments on anthrax and cholera confirmed these results and found that the harmless bacteria inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria.
In Germany, in 1888, called pyocyanase antimicrobial substances was isolated. Animal studies have shown that the substance is very effective. In fact, the results were so exciting that studies have been conducted in humans suffering from various infections. However, the results are very disappointing pyocyanase-man proved too toxic. Therefore, any research in this area has stopped.
In 1910, a more promising agent called salvarsan, which was made of dye, proved effective in the treatment of syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease common in those days. Again, the toxicity in humans a major obstacle to its development and widespread use.
The problem of lack of toxicity and to find other antibiotics are two factors that hinder the progress of research. The enthusiasm began to wane in the search for "magic bullet" that humanity is free from contagious diseases, many of which are major causes of death at this time.
The wave began to change when Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin. He distinguished himself in medical school, Dr. Fleming has undertaken research in pathology in 1908. His early work led to the isolation of lysozyme, an enzyme in human tears and mucus from the nose. This enzyme proved to be a little anti-bacterial, but it was not very effective against most infections in humans.
By 1928, while trying to increase the bacteria Staphylococcus spp. agar plate (a pot used for preparing bacterial cultures), Fleming noticed that the increase was inhibited by bacteria, fungi, which accidentally contaminated the plate. He decided to prescribe the form, which was eventually called Penicillium notatum. Fleming was excited by this discovery. He farmed in the form of a special broth injected nutrients and some of his patients who had various diseases. The results are encouraging, and the soup turned out to be non-toxic. Unfortunately, Fleming does not have enough broth, which is rather limited experience. When he presented a paper on its findings in 1929, his fellow doctors was not particularly impressed or interested.
Only two other talented scientists, physicians Florey and Chain, working at the University of Oxford in 1930 and 1940 already aware of the findings of Mr. Fleming. Their pioneering work, which has penicillin in clinical practice. Florey, an Australian doctor, went to Oxford on a scholarship to study pathology. Network German chemist who had fled the Nazis in 1930 and had to stay in England.
Florey wanted to create a group of scientists who were interested in finding an effective antibacterial substance. He was a microbiologist and physician, while the network was able to isolate the pharmacy, purification and characterization of these substances. Their research team is composed of twenty of the best researchers in the United Kingdom at that time. Concentrate their attention on the work of Alexander Fleming and penicillin worked and test its effectiveness.
In a laboratory experiment, the team injected mice with a lethal dose fifty Streptococcus spp. bacteria. Twenty-five of these animals received frequent injections of penicillin. In the control group (other twenty-five mice) was not filed with penicillin. After ten days, twenty-four to twenty-five mice treated with penicillin survived. All mice in the control group were dead. These surprising results have been recorded in the prestigious medical journal The Lancet in August 24.1940.
In 1941, the first Oxford group has conducted clinical trials of penicillin. Their patient was a policeman of 43 years, suffering from septicemia (blood poisoning). Man dies when Florey and Chain decided to try the drastic measure seems penicillin intramuscularly every three hours for five days. The twenty-four hours, he was improving the human condition. The fourth day, his fever was not and stopped eating. However, after five days, the supply of penicillin ran out and the patient's condition began to deteriorate. Ultimately he died. Despite his death, it was clear to everyone that penicillin is highly effective in fighting infection.
Oxford Group next challenge was to find ways to penicillin in large economic quantities. All efforts to obtain their support for the research industry in the United Kingdom failed, so in summer 1941, went to the United States. There could be many pharmaceutical companies specializing in the industrial production of penicillin, including Merck, Squibb, Pfizer, Abbott, Winthrop, commercial solvents. It is the U.S. pharmaceutical companies that have made the reality of treatment with penicillin.
Subsequent tests have produced dramatic results. The penicillins showed remarkable effectiveness against many infections, including pneumonia, sepsis, scarlet fever, tonsillitis, diphtheria, gonorrhea, and rheumatic fever. There is a general belief that it can help treat an illness, the myth that still exists today. The huge publicity surrounding the miracle drug "New" and in 1945, Fleming, Florey and Chain were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Penicillin produced later, in oral form and added to many products, including ointments, throat lozenges, nasal ointments and cosmetic creams. Before 1955, its sales are not controlled, so that everyone can be bought without a prescription, without prescription. The excessive and indiscriminate use leads to an overgrowth of resistant bacteria, and the damage was done. Resistance has become a serious problem, an epidemic of resistant staphylococcal infections began appearing in hospitals.
In 1935, German researchers have shown that the dye known as Red Prontosil cured mice that were infected with Streptococcus spp. (Bacteria that causes strep throat). Prontosil Red was a pioneering group of antibiotic drugs such as sulfa drugs called sulfonamides, or. These drugs are still used. Septra, for example, contains sulfamethoxazole, is used to treat infections of the respiratory and urinary tract.
Microbiologists have long known that the soil contains very few bacteria that can cause infections in humans. Studies of soil bacteria and why are not capable of causing disease throughout the work Selman Waksman, a researcher at Rutgers University in New Jersey.
In 1939, Waksman provided by Merck and financial assistance to mount search for antibiotics from soil microorganisms. In 1943, this research has led to the isolation of streptomycin, the antibiotic first to offer hope to patients with tuberculosis (TB). This antibiotic is still the treatment of tuberculosis.
After a clinical practice in patients with tuberculosis, he soon realized that streptomycin has caused adverse reactions not observed with penicillin, including kidney damage and deafness. However, the main problem encountered in the use of streptomycin, and reduces its efficiency has been resistance. The rate at which bacteria could develop resistance to drugs has been a surprise to Waksman and his associates. For this reason, they were driven to seek other antibiotics. This research led to the development of neomycin, a drug used in antibacterial ointment today.
In 1947, chloramphenicol has been used in clinical trials for the treatment of epidemic typhus in Bolivia. Its success in reducing the epidemic has led to its application in the treatment of scrub typhus in Malaysia world.
The epidemic in Bolivia every twenty-two patients who received chloramphenicol refundable. With fifty patients with an antibiotic was not available, fourteen deaths. Studies in Bolivia, not only the link with South America is an antibiotic. Chloramphenicol was isolated from soil samples in Caracas, Venezuela, the discovery is important in two respects. First, he highlighted the new antibiotic substances, and secondly, as demonstrated by clinical examination, chloramphenicol can cure hitherto incurable diseases such as typhus. Later, the same antibiotics, showed excellent results in the treatment of typhoid fever. Finally, researchers have managed to find substances that can treat severe infections.
The euphoria of the discovery of chloramphenicol was mitigated somewhat when it has been shown to cause serious side effects. In 1950, many researchers have been concerned about mounting evidence linking it to serious blood disorders, including anemia and leukemia.
Today, the use of chloramphenicol is limited in developed countries, where more expensive but safer drugs are available. In developing countries, however, is still widely used because it is so cheap to manufacture. It is mainly used to treat typhoid fever, typhoid fever, meningitis and brucellosis, but may also be used for other infections. Can be used alone, in the ear or eye drops.
In mid-1940, Giuseppe Brotzu, rector of the University of Cagliari in Sardinia, as a single antimicrobial substance and form. He has conducted clinical trials of this substance (although as an impurity) and achieved very good results, especially in the treatment of staphylococcal infections and typhoid fever.
Brotzu published his results in 1948, and his work came Florey's research group at Oxford. When samples obtained fungi were able to isolate and purify a number of penicillin as antibiotics. They were called cephalosporins. Cephalosporins are very effective in the treatment of many bacterial infections. Destroy bacteria in the same way penicillin and interesting alternative, particularly in the case of resistance to penicillin is a problem. Another advantage is that they have very low toxicity, although allergic reactions develop in about 5 percent of patients.
Changes in the basic chemical structure of cephalosporin has led to the development of a wide range of antibiotics for clinical use. Research on the development of new cephalosporins continues today.
In 1947, chlortetracycline was isolated from the sample of the mud of the Missouri River by Benjamin M. Duggar. Chlortetracycline was the first tetracycline, but the Duggar discovery led to the isolation and further develop some very strong antibiotics that are currently ranking second in the world to penicillins.
Since they are active against many bacteria and are relatively inexpensive to produce, tetracycline rapidly gained favor, are now used to treat infections with a long list.
Further research conducted on tetracycline proved effective. But they are also known to cause several toxic side effects. Tetracyclines form complexes of calcium in the bones increased, which can cause permanent discoloration and damage to the enamel of teeth, and reduced bone growth. Tetracyclines also cross the placenta and greater toxicity in the fetus. Because of these side effects are forbidden in the treatment of infections in pregnant women and children under seven years because they can inhibit the development of young children.
Other toxic effects, a proliferation of Candida. Staphylococcus spp. bacteria in the intestine, causing chronic infection with these organisms. Liver and kidney damage may also occur in some patients because they can allergic reactions such as hives, rash, asthma and contact dermatitis.
Since tetracyclines form complexes with calcium, magnesium and iron, should not be taken with dairy products or mineral supplements containing vitamins and calcium, magnesium and iron.
Other studies have taken place in 1960, which led to the development of second generation antibiotics. These include methicillin, penicillin derivatives semisynthetic manufactured specifically to address the problem of resistance to penicillin. methicillin-called breakthrough in the fight against bacterial resistance to penicillin, researchers believed they could now win this battle. Unfortunately, bacteria have the last word, and we now have the bacteria are resistant to methicillin.
Ampicillin is a derivative of penicillin. It has been developed to extend the range of infections, which can be regarded as penicillin and penicillin is replaced in large measure. This is often the first choice in the treatment of several infections, including infections of the respiratory and urinary tract.
Amoxicillin is another commonly used penicillin derivatives. How to ampicillin, a broad range of activities, as seen in both Gram-positive bacteria (bacteria that keep the purple spots in a process known as Gram stain or Gram used to classify bacteria as spp, Streptococcus. And Staphylococcus spp) and gram-negative bacteria (bacteria that do not retain the violet stain used in Gram's method, for example. E. coli and Haemophilus influenzae).
Gentamicin in the same family of antibiotics streptomycin (anti-TB drugs was discovered in 1943). It is generally reserved for serious infections because it can have serious toxic side effects on ears and kidneys.
Recently a new family of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones has been developed by pharmaceutical companies. In addition to being effective against many bacteria, these antibiotics can reach high concentrations in the blood after oral administration. This means that many other infections that may eventually require a hospital stay can now be treated at home.
Fluoroquinolones are often used in cases where the long course of antibiotics (weeks to several months) are required. The complete range is now available and have proven effective against bacteria that have been difficult to treat, such as leprosy bacteria.
Search for new and better drugs, which began with Florey, Chain, and Waksman, continues today. The pace, but fell in particular, as it is now much more difficult for pharmaceutical companies to obtain approval of new drugs. Time elapsed since the discovery of antibiotics in the lab approval to market its production is so great that it led to the resignation of some companies on the market as a whole. Companies involved in the search for new antibiotics is also increasingly difficult to keep pace in which the resistance of bacteria causing unnecessary results.