Vitamin C is water soluble, and probably the most famous of all vitamins. Even before its discovery in 1932, the doctor decided that there must be an association of citrus fruits in preventing scurvy, a disease that has killed nearly 2 million sailors between 1500 and 1800. Later, scientists discovered that humans, other primates and pigs Guinea are dependent on external sources to support the needs of vitamin C. Most other animals can synthesize vitamin C from glucose and galactose in their bodies.
The most important role of vitamin C is the resistance of a stimulant, which is important for defense against infections such as colds. It also acts as an inhibitor of histamine, a substance that is released during allergic reactions. As a powerful antioxidant that can neutralize harmful free radicals and neutralize the impurities and toxins. In this way, is able to prevent the formation of potentially carcinogenic nitrosamines in the stomach (due to consumption of foods containing nitrites, smoked meat). Importantly, vitamin C is also able to regenerate other antioxidants like vitamin E. Vitamin C is essential for the synthesis of collagen, the intercellular "cement" substance, which gives the structure of muscle, vascular tissue, bones, tendons and ligaments. Because of these functions, vitamin C, especially in combination with zinc, is important for the healing of wounds. Vitamin C contributes to the health of your teeth and gums, bleeding and prevent bleeding. It also affects the absorption of iron from food, and is necessary for the metabolism of bile acids, which can affect cholesterol levels in blood and gallstones. In addition, vitamin C plays an important role in the synthesis of several peptide hormones and neurotransmitters important and carnitine. Finally, vitamin C is also a key factor in the ability of the eyes to cope with oxidative stress, and may retard the progression of advanced age, macular degeneration (AMD) and vision loss in combination with other antioxidant vitamins and zinc.
Main features in brief:
- Stimulation of the immune system
- "Cement" for the fabric
- Wound Healing
- Healthy teeth and gums
- Iron absorption AIDS
Vitamin C is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Citrus fruits, blackcurrants, peppers, green vegetables (eg broccoli, Brussels sprouts) and fruits like strawberries, guavas, mangoes and kiwi fruit are particularly rich sources. On the basis of quantity, consumption of potatoes, cabbage, spinach and tomatoes is also important. Depending on the season, a medium size glass of freshly squeezed orange juice (100 g) gave 15-35 mg of vitamin C.
Absorption and Body Shops
The absorption of vitamin C depends on the quantity of consumption decreases with increasing dose. At the entrance of 30-180 milligrams, or about 70% to 90% is absorbed, about 50% in a single dose of 1 to 1.5 grams absorbed, and only 16% in a single dose of 12 grams is absorbed. For about 500 milligrams of sodium are absorbed by active transport process dependent, and higher doses, followed by simple diffusion.
Capacity of water-soluble vitamins are generally small compared to those of fat-soluble. People on average in The Body Shop Vitamin C 20 mg / kg body weight. The highest concentration is in the pituitary gland (400 mg / kg) and other tissues with high concentrations of adrenal glands, liver, brain and white blood cells (leukocytes).
Vitamin C can be measured in plasma and other tissues of the body through various techniques. Strips also estimate the level of vitamin C in the urine are available. Less gratifying, however, is to evaluate the analytical data to accurately reflect the state of the organism. Threshold values are difficult to define and the subject of controversial debate. Plasma concentrations typical of the range of 20-100 mmol / L.
Vitamin C is sensitive to heat, light and oxygen. Food can be partially or totally destroyed by long storage or container. The cooling can significantly reduce the loss of vitamin C in foods.
The presence of other antioxidants like vitamin E and beta-carotene, strengthens the protective effect of vitamin C. antioxidant vitamins like other B complex (especially B6, B12, folic acid and pantothenic acid) and pharmacologically active substances, as well as naturally occurring compounds known as bioflavonoids may affect savings on vitamin C.
Because of toxic compounds in the smoke, the requirement of vitamin C in smokers is 35 mg / day than non-smokers. Also a number of pharmacologically active compounds, including some antidepressants, diuretics, oral contraceptives and aspirin, tissue damage of vitamin C applies to certain habits, like alcohol.
The first symptoms of vitamin C is very general and can also indicate other diseases. These include fatigue, tiredness, loss of appetite, drowsiness and insomnia, feeling degraded, irritability, low resistance to infection and petechiae (small hemorrhages capillaries). severe lack of vitamin C causes scurvy, characterized by a weakening of collagen structures, resulting in severe bleeding capillaries. Infantile scurvy causes bone deformities. Bleeding gums and loosening teeth are usually the first clinical signs of scarcity. cause bleeding in the tenderness of the skin and extreme pain in the extremities during movement. If not treated, gangrene and death may occur. At the moment, which is rare in developed countries and can be prevented by daily intake of 10-15 mg of vitamin C. However, for optimal physiological functioning of much larger amounts are needed.
Development of a lack of vitamin C may be caused by:
- Inadequate storage and preparation of food
- Stress and exercise
- Pregnancy and lactation
Disease Prevention and Therapeutic
Dozens of prospective studies indicate that vitamin C plays a role in preventing many diseases. It is also used to treat certain diseases of orthomolecular medicine. As this element is essential for many diseases, some of them are presented here in detail.
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (heart disease and stroke)
Data from the CVD-protective benefits of vitamin C are incompatible. In some studies failed to find a significant reduction in risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), many prospective cohort studies have found relationships between the inverse of vitamin C intake or vitamin C and risk of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin C may protect the coronary arteries by reducing plaque accumulation, because it prevents oxidation of LDL ("bad" cholesterol), especially in combination with vitamin E. Some of the data showed that vitamin C can also increase blood levels of HDL ("good" cholesterol), which is also considered positive for heart disease prevention. The risk of stroke may be reduced by taking vitamin C for fruit, vegetables and supplements. However, because of data incompatibility and lack of specificity of vitamin C, the interpretation of these results is difficult.
The role of vitamin C in cancer prevention has been widely studied, and so far there is no beneficial effect has been demonstrated for breast, prostate or lung cancer. However, several studies related to high intakes of vitamin C with a reduced incidence of upper gastrointestinal tract, cervix, ovary, bladder and large intestine. The study revealed a significant reduction in cancer risk, it is recommended that consumption of at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Five servings of fruits and vegetables the most benefits of more than 200 mg of vitamin C per day. Only a significant reduction in risk of cancer has been detected in people who eat at least 80-110 mg of vitamin C per day.
Many studies have shown a general lack of impact of prophylactic vitamin C supplementation on the incidence of colds, but showed modest gains in terms of duration and severity of episodes of some groups, especially those exposed physical stress or cold. Improving the cold after supplementation of vitamin C may be due to the use of anti-mega doses of vitamin C.
During the postoperative period, or during the healing of wounds, the extra vitamin C helps prevent infections and promote skin repair.
Several studies have shown blood pressure-lowering medications supplementation with vitamin C 500 mg per day because of improved vasodilation.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
The recommended daily dose of vitamin C varies according to age, risk group between the sexes, and the criteria used in different countries. U.S. RDA of vitamin C were recently increased to 90 mg / day for men and 75 mg / day for women, based on pharmacokinetic data. For smokers, the RDAs are increased by an additional 35 mg / day. Large amounts of vitamin C are recommended for pregnant women (85 mg / day) and lactating (120 mg / day). ADRs are a similar extent in other countries. Recent evidence shows respect for maintaining optimal health in the region of 100 mg per day.