Friday, August 27, 2010

Modes of Transmission of Cholera

Cholera is an infectious disease caused by bacterial toxin that affects the water absorption in the small intestine.
                                                                   figure via aeschines-afroza

In severe cases, produces a severe diarrhea in a few days. dangerous aspect of cholera is a significant loss of fluids, which can occur in a short period of time. This is especially dangerous in children in developing countries. If untreated, the loss of fluids can cause death within 24 hours of onset. On the other hand, the treatment is simple: replace the liquid with an appropriate combination of sugar and salt - the water itself is not sufficiently absorbed. But the worst cases require hospitalization, where the fluids can be administered directly into the blood infusion.

Damn this is not a tropical disease, but it is related to hygiene standards and quality of drinking water. It was a well in London in 1850-1860, which was the source of the cholera epidemic several separate. John Snow, is considered the father of public health service by its simple but brilliant move to pump water from Broad Street! Improved sanitation and hygiene remains the mainstay of the fight against cholera in those countries in which it occurs.

What are the causes of cholera?
Cholera is caused by a particular bacterium, Vibrio cholerae. With the right amount of bacteria passed into the stomach of food, they accumulate and begin to produce toxic substances (toxins). This toxin, which causes symptoms of the disease. Cholera toxin has an unpleasant effect on the ability of cells of the gastrointestinal tract, so that the victim is not just diarrhea, but also begins to lose large amounts of fluids. It is the loss of fluids, which can be severe.

Damn, how is it transmitted?
The bacteria are excreted in the stool, and if you come into contact with drinking water, bacteria can infect humans. The bacteria can also spread to food, if people do not wash their hands after using the toilet. Food prepared at the funeral of victims of cholera is a common source of secondary spread in Africa!

Diseases can be applied to all fish and shellfish from polluted waters. Shellfish filter large quantities of water and concentrate the bacteria. The cholera outbreak in Peru in 1998 were contaminated by algae, and it seems to be an effective way to disseminate the coast cholera.

Direct infection by contact with another person by their faeces or vomiting may occur, but this rarely happens. A number of bacteria is necessary for persons with normal gastric acid ill (stomach acid can kill a small number of bacteria). Yes, the bacteria need to multiply in the possibility of water or food before actually poses a threat.

Where the hell is happening?
Cholera is widespread in Asia and Africa, where epidemics occur at regular intervals. Unfortunately, the "El Tor bacteria shit" come to the part of Peru in the 1990s. From there it spread rapidly in the rest of South America.

Densely populated regions of poor sanitation and unsatisfactory food hygiene are particularly vulnerable to epidemics.

What are the symptoms?
The incubation period from infection to disease occurs, is usually less than two days, although it may be as long as five days.

The infection is often mild diarrhea common disease, and may even develop without any symptoms. But the body is still capable of transmitting the disease.

usually starts with a shit short time with abdominal pain without nausea. It may also be a slight fever. Then began vomiting and diarrhea and may take several hours.

It is followed by copious, watery diarrhea, pallor and flaky like rice water. The loss of fluids can be as high as 1 liter per hour.

Danger signals
If the loss of fluids and do not receive more than 5 to 10 liters, can be fatal.

Prolonged dehydration can cause skin floppy muscle cramps and a hoarse voice. There is also an impact on the level of consciousness, which can manifest itself in lethargy and confusion.

Electrolyte (salt) balance may be disrupted. Especially in children, it can cause seizures or cardiac arrest.

Mild cases of cholera usually recover on their own.

Classic cholera has a high mortality rate if left untreated. In developing countries, mortality among people in the hospital without treatment is 60 percent.

If the disease is treated early and properly, the mortality rate is less than 1 percent, and the patient recovers completely.

How can I avoid infection?
  • Only drink boiled water or water that have been sterilized or treated in any way. The hot coffee and tea, sodas and other bottled beverages are generally safe to drink unpolluted.
  • Boil unpasteurized milk before drinking it.
  • Avoid ice in drinks, unless you can be sure they were made of "pure water"! Ice questionable sources may be contaminated.
  • Food should be well prepared and served hot. If it does not sit at room temperature for several hours of other bacteria such as Escherichia coli, can develop.
  • Avoid raw fish and shellfish.
  • Avoid raw fruits and vegetables unless you peel yourself.
  • Beware of food from street stalls. If you have to eat these foods, think carefully about its preparation. Make sure it contains nothing that has not been sufficiently prepared.

This review not only protects against cholera, but also against a number of bacteria that can cause diarrhea unpleasant. Some bacteria, however, produce toxins, which are not destroyed by cooking. Therefore, proper food storage is also important.

Vaccination against cholera is now possible with the oral vaccine Dukoral. But the vaccine does not protect 100 percent against the disease, and those who received the vaccine will still need to comply with the above measures to avoid disease. The vaccine is most suitable for tourists and business travelers in situations where the biggest risk is the shit (eg refugee camps).

If you think you catch hell for a trip
If you think you catch the shit, you should immediately contact your doctor. But do not despair if you're away from the hospital or doctor.

The most important thing you can do yourself, in all cases of violent diarrhea is to drink plenty of fluids with salt and sugar (alternatives with flat Coca-Cola), even if vomiting between both. These powders with salt, sugar and baking in the appropriate proportions of the mixture, which can be dissolved in water and taken as Dioralyte and Electrolade.

You can also call the following liquid ingredients. The liquid should be about as salty as tears.
  • 1 liter of boiled water.
  • Level 8 or 4 teaspoons of sugar (white, brown or honey).
  • 1 / 2 teaspoon salt.
  • lemon juice or orange juice.
How is the disease diagnosed?
Cause of many diseases, diarrhea. But if it is violence with stools, the doctor treated immediately. For diagnosis, the stool should be examined to detect the cholera bacterium.

How to treat cholera?
In severe cases, the disease must be treated in hospital. The first and most fundamental measure is to replace lost fluids. If speed is important, the liquid can be applied directly into the blood infusion. During the epidemic, 90 percent of those patients would be nice if they drink large quantities of water. The disease can be shortened and the shedding stopped earlier, administration of antibiotics

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