Cardiogenic (kar-dee-oh-JE-nik) is a state of shock, in which the weakened heart fails to pump enough blood to meet the needs of the organization. It is a medical emergency and is fatal if not treated immediately. The most common cause of cardiogenic shock is damage to the heart muscle with a severe heart attack.
Not everyone who has a heart attack develops cardiogenic shock. In fact, less than 10 percent of people who have a myocardial infarction development. But when there is no cardiogenic shock, it is very dangerous. For people who die of a heart attack at the hospital, cardiogenic shock is the most common cause.
What is a Concussion?
The use of the term "shock" refers to a condition in which not enough blood and oxygen to obtain important organs in the body such as brain and kidneys. In a state of shock, those with blood pressure is very low.
The shock can be many different reasons. Cardiogenic shock is one reason why the shock.
Other causes of shock are:
- Hypovolemic (HY-Voe-poe-LEE-mik) shock. It's a shock because not enough blood in the body. The most common cause is severe bleeding.
- Vasodilation (VAZ-oh-oh-Dile-tor-ee) the shock. In this type of shock, blood vessels relax too much and cause very low blood pressure. When blood vessels are too relaxed, there is not enough pressure to push blood through them. Without sufficient pressure, blood does not reach the organs. Bacterial infection in the blood, severe allergic reaction or damage to the nervous system (brain and nerves) may result in expansion of shock.
When a person is in shock (for whatever reason), it is not enough blood or oxygen reaches the organs of the body. If the shock lasts more than a few minutes due to lack of oxygen to the body begins to cause damage. If the shock is not treated early, organ damage can become permanent, a person can die.
Some of the symptoms of shock are:
- Confusion or lack of vigilance
- Sudden, rapid heart
- Weak pulse
- Decreased urine output or not
- Cool hands and feet
If you suspect you or someone you are in shock, call 911 and to undergo emergency treatment immediately. Early treatment can prevent or limit permanent damage to the brain and other organs and can prevent death.
In the past, almost no one survived the cardiogenic shock. Now, thanks to improved treatment, about 50 percent of people who go into cardiogenic shock survive.
Therefore, people increasingly survive through treatment of cardiogenic shock (drugs and devices) that restore blood flow to the heart and the heart to pump more. In some cases, devices that support the pumping function of the heart are used. The implantation of these devices require major surgery.
What are the causes of cardiogenic shock?
Cardiogenic shock happens when the heart can not pump enough blood to the body. It usually occurs when the left ventricle does not work, because the muscle is not enough blood and oxygen due to heart attack continuously. weakening of the heart muscle does not pump enough oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body.
In about 3 percent of cases of cardiogenic shock, right ventricle does not work. This means that the heart can not pump blood efficiently to the lungs where oxygen in the blood rises to the heart and the rest of the body.
When the heart does not pump enough blood to the rest of the body, organs (such as brain and kidney) did not have enough oxygen and can be damaged. Some things that can happen are as follows.
- Cardiogenic shock can cause death if the blood flow and oxygen to the organs is not restored quickly. Therefore, the emergency medical treatment is necessary.
- When the authorities did not have enough blood and oxygen and stop working, cells die in the organs, agencies and can not return to normal operation.
- As some authorities do not act, they can cause problems with other bodily functions. What may make the impact worse. For example: a). When kidneys do not function properly, levels of important chemical changes in the body. This can cause heart and other muscles become even weaker, limiting blood flow even more. b). When the liver is not functioning properly, the body stops making the proteins that cause blood clotting. This can lead to bleeding if the shock over the loss of blood.
- As in the brain, kidneys and other organs recover depends on how long a person is in shock. More time in shock, the less damage to organs. This is another reason why it is so important to get medical help immediately.
Who is at risk of cardiogenic shock?
The factor most common risk of cardiogenic shock is a heart attack. If you had a heart attack, the following factors may increase the risk of cardiogenic shock:
- Old age
- A history of myocardial infarction or heart failure
- About coronary heart disease in all major blood vessels, heart
What are the signs and symptoms of cardiogenic shock?
The lack of blood and oxygen to the brain, kidneys, skin and other parts of the body causes the symptoms of cardiogenic shock. The symptoms of cardiogenic shock include:
- Confusion or lack of vigilance
- Sudden, rapid heart
- Weak pulse
- Decreased urine output or not
- Cool hands and feet
If anyone of you about these symptoms, immediately call 9-1-1 for emergency medical treatment. Early treatment can prevent or limit permanent damage to the heart and other organs and can prevent sudden death.
How is it diagnosed cardiogenic shock?
The first step in the diagnosis of cardiogenic shock is an indication that the person is in shock. At this point, medical assistance should be established.
After starting emergency treatment, doctors can find the cause of shock. If the reason is the shock that the heart does not pump strongly enough, the diagnosis is cardiogenic shock.
The tests that are useful in the diagnosis of cardiogenic shock include:
- Blood pressure. With a simple blood pressure cuff and stethoscope, the doctor can determine if a person has a very low blood pressure, most trade shock. This can easily be done before the patient reaches the hospital. A very low blood pressure may also have less serious causes, including simple and low side effects of drugs such as medication to treat hypertension.
- ECG (electrocardiogram). This test detects and records the heart's electrical activity, measuring the speed and regularity of the heart. Doctors use the ECG to diagnose a severe heart attack and monitor the condition of the heart.
- Chest radiograph. This test takes pictures of organs and structures inside the chest, including the heart, lungs and blood vessels. Ray chest shows whether the heart is enlarged, if there is fluid in the lungs, which can be a symptom of cardiogenic shock.
- Echocardiography. This test uses sound waves to create an animated image of the heart. Echocardiography provides information on the size and shape of the heart and how heart chambers and valves are working. The test can also identify areas of myocardial infarction, which normally are not institutions. Not enough blood flows in these areas.
- Angiography. This study is an x-ray of the heart and blood vessels. The doctor passes a catheter (a thin, flexible tube) into an artery in the leg or arm to the heart. Catheter can measure the pressure inside the various chambers of the heart. Dye, who can be seen on x-ray is injected into the blood through the catheter. Dye allows the doctor to examine blood flow through the heart and blood vessels, and I see no obstacles exist.
certain blood tests are also used to diagnose cardiogenic shock, including:
- Arterial blood gas measurement. In this study, a sample of blood from the artery to measure oxygen, carbon dioxide and pH (acidity) in the blood. Doctors looking for abnormalities in these levels that are associated with a shock.
- cardiac enzymes. When heart cells die, they release enzymes in the blood called markers or biomarkers. The measurement of these indicators can show if the heart is damaged and the extent of damage.
- Studies that measure the function of various organs such as kidneys and liver. If these authorities do not work too well, this may be a sign they are not enough blood and oxygen, which may be a sign of cardiogenic shock.
What is the treatment of cardiogenic shock?
Cardiogenic shock is life threatening and requires emergency medical treatment. In most cases, cardiogenic shock is diagnosed after a person has been admitted to hospital for a heart attack. If the person is no longer in the hospital, emergency treatment can begin as soon as medical personnel to arrive.
The objectives of the emergency treatment of cardiogenic shock is the first time in the treatment of shock, then in the treatment of the cause or causes of shock.
Sometimes both the current and its causes are treated in the same time. For example, physicians can quickly open blocked blood vessels that cause heart damage. Often, the patient's blood vessel opening may be in shock, with an additional treatment or almost.
Emergency Life Support
life in the emergency treatment is necessary to support all types of shocks. This procedure will get the blood flowing and oxygen to the brain, kidneys and other organs. Restoration of blood flow to organs is essential to keep the patient alive and trying to prevent long term damage to organs. life sustaining treatment in an emergency include:
- Giving patients extra oxygen to breathe, so that more oxygen reaches the lungs, heart and the rest of the body.
- Give the patient fluids, including blood and blood products, through the needle into the vein (in the case where the shock due to blood loss). The introduction of more blood in the bloodstream can help you get more blood to major organs and the rest of the body. Typically, this is not to cardiogenic shock, because the heart can not pump the blood that are already in the body and too much fluid in the lungs, making breathing difficult.
During and after the life of emergencies, doctors are trying to find out what is causing the shock. If the reason is the shock that the heart does not pump strongly enough, the diagnosis is cardiogenic shock.
Depending on what is the cause of cardiogenic shock, treatment may include medications:
- Increasing the force with which the heart muscle contracts
- Treatment of myocardial infarction, which may cause electric shock
The medical devices and procedures
Apart from drugs, any drug that may help the heart pump and improve blood circulation. Equipment commonly used in the treatment of cardiogenic shock include:
- Balloon pump intra-aortic. This unit is located in the aorta (main blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body). A large balloon at the end of the device is inflated and break the rhythm, which is identical to the rhythm of cardiac pump function. This helps to weaken the heart muscle that pumps blood, as much, and gets more blood to vital organs like the brain and kidneys.
- Angioplasty and stents. Angioplasty is a procedure used to restore blood flow in coronary arteries and blocked for a period of treatment of a heart attack. Stent is a small device that is placed in a coronary artery during angioplasty to help keep them open.
Sometimes, medicines and medical devices are not sufficient for the treatment of cardiogenic shock. Operations to restore blood flow to the heart and the rest of the body and repair damage to the heart. The operations can help keep the patient alive while recovering from the shock and increase the chances of long-term survival.
Types of operations used to treat the causes of cardiogenic shock include:
- CABG (Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting). In this operation, arteries or veins from other parts of the body are used to bypass (get around) narrowed coronary arteries.
- Operations to repair damaged heart valves.
- Operation repair breaks in the wall between the two chambers of the heart. This break is called a rupture of the septum.
- Setting the device to assist heart pumps blood to the body. This device is called a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) or mechanical circulatory support. This treatment can be carried out if the damage to the left ventricle is the cause of shock. implant is battery operated pump, which takes over the pumping action of the heart.
- Heart transplantation. It is rarely performed in emergency situations such as cardiogenic shock due to other options available devices and surgery. In addition, doctors need to test very carefully to ensure you have the benefits of heart transplantation and to find suitable donor heart. However, in some cases, doctors may recommend a transplant, they consider the best way to increase their chances of survival for patients long term.